Eastern Woodlands Native Americans First Nations

Reviewed Resources for Students and Teachers

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Eastern Woodland Indian Tribes

Abenaki - - Algonquin - - Anishinabe / Ojibwe / Chippewa Indians - - Creek Indian Tribe - - Delaware Lenape Indians - - Huron / Wendat Indians - - Kikapoo Indians - - Maliseet Indians - - Mi'kMaq Indians - - Osage Indians

 

Abenaki

Abenaki __ "The Abenaki people call themselves Alnôbak, meaning "Real People" (c.f. Lenape language: Lenapek). In addition, when compared to the more
interior Algonquian peoples, they call themselves Wôbanuok meaning "Easterners"..." An encyclopedic article along with additional resources. - illustrated - From
wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abenaki

Abenaki History __ A good outline of Abenaki history along with links to other resources. - illustrated - From abenakination.org -
http://www.abenakination.org/history.html

Abenaki Indian Genealogy __ "Links, mailing lists, and general information for tracing Abenaki heritage." - From accessgenealogy.com -
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/abenaki/index.htm

Abenaki Indian Tribe __ Collection of individual Abenaki Indian legends and folktales. Abenaki Mythology ... Family tree, photos, and Abenaki genealogy
resources. - illustrated - From native-languages.org - http://www.native-languages.org/abenaki.htm

Abenaki Indian Tribe __ This site is jam-packed with information ranging from Abenaki history through tribal divisions and ethnic relations. - From nanations.com - http://www.nanations.com/abenaki/index.htm
 
The Abenaki Indians by Frederic Kidder __ "Download the free eBook: The Abenaki Indians by Frederic Kidder." - From gutenberg.org -
http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/25416

Abenaki Traditions __ Read about ceremonies, pipe smoking, herbs, and food of the Cowasuck Abenakis. - From cowasuck.org -
http://www.cowasuck.org/lifestyle.cfm

Cowasuck Band of the Pennacook-Abenaki People __The Cowasuck Band of Abenaki/Pennacook People is an excellent source of information regarding Abenaki related events and services in the entire New England area. - From cowasuck.org - http://www.cowasuck.org/pageone.cfm 

Facts for Kids: Abenaki Indians (Abanaki, Abnaki, Abenakis) ___"Where do the Abenaki Indians live? What was Abenaki culture like in the past? What is it like now? What was Abenaki clothing like? Did they wear feather headdresses and face paint?" The answers to these (and many other questions) are here in easy-to-understand language. Highlighted words within the text lead you to further information about, and pictures of, the topic at hand. - Illustrated - From Native Languages of the Americas - http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/abenaki_kids.htm

Maine's Water Routes ___While this article discusses the polluting and clean up of Maine's rivers, there is a paragraph about the importance of these waterways to the Abenaki people. - Illustrated - From the Gulf of Maine Aquarium - http://octopus.gma.org/streams/roots.html

Menu - Abenaki Graphics & Maps __You will find maps and click-to-view Abenaki photos. Abenaki pictures. - From avcnet.org -
http://www.avcnet.org/ne-do-ba/menu_pic.shtml

Native American Indian Legends - Abenaki Emergence Myth __ Creation story of the Abenaki. - From firstpeople.us -
http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Legends/AbenakiEmergenceMyth-Abenaki.html 
 
Ne-Do-Ba - The Abenaki of Western Maine ___This website is maintained by a nonprofit corporation, Ne-Do-Ba, "established to explore and share topics relating  to the Abenaki Indian and their Euroamerican relationships in Western Maine, past and present." Click on the links buttons to access information about such topics as history and genealogy. - Text only - From Ne-Do-Ba - http://avcnet.lewiston.lib.me.us/ne-do-ba/

Resources on the Abenaki __ Collection of resources about the Abenaki also resources for other Native American topics. - From mongabay.com -
http://www.mongabay.com/indigenous_ethnicities/north_american/Abenaki.html

Story - A Visit with Sabael Benedict ___The interview you find here was conducted about 1948. It's most interesting. - Illustrated - Originally from John Todd, D.D. - http://www.avcnet.org/ne-do-ba/fam_ben1.html

Traditional Indian Games And Toys ___While the information presented here might be applied in general to any Native American tribe, this paper concerns
theAbenakis of Maine. - Text only - From Susan Aucoin - http://www.avcnet.org/ne-do-ba/mc_gam01.html

Vermont Court Says History Voids Land Claims of Abenaki Indians __ "The Abenaki Indians' claims to about 150 square miles of land in northwestern Vermont have been voided by the "increasing weight of history," the State Supreme Court has ruled." A rather 'dated' article from 1992 but still an important read in Abenaki history. - From nytimes.com - http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE3DB163AF93BA25755C0A964958260

Who are the Abenaki Indians? ___"The history, culture, societal make-up, hunting and spiritual life of the Abenaki Indians. Also an analysis of the living conditions of the remnant of these people surviving in the 21st century." - Text only - From PageWise, Inc. - http://scsc.essortment.com/abenakinewengl_rmru.htm

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Algonquin

About the Algonquin Indians __ "Algonquins were once one of the most influential aboriginal tribes in all of North American history. Their people played decisive roles in the fur trade, in several wars and in the creation of the modern-day nations of Canada and the United States."  A general overview. - From ehow.com - http://www.ehow.com/about_4569708_the-algonquin-indians.html

Algonkin History __ Good look at history, tribal culture and more. - From tolatsga.org - http://www.tolatsga.org/alg.html 
 
Algonquin __ "...are an aboriginal North American people speaking Algonquin, an Algonquian language. Culturally and linguistically, they are closely related to the Odawa and Ojibwe, with whom they form the larger Anicinŕpe grouping." an encyclopedic article with links to related material. - From wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algonquin 

Algonquin __ An extensive look at the Algonquin including history, culture, past and current events, communities and references. - From nationmaster.com - http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Algonquin

Algonquin Indians sell Island of Manhattan to Dutch colonist Peter Minuit for Sixty Guilders __ Actually worth about a thousand dollars and not just the $24 so popular in the stories. - From timelines.com - http://timelines.com/1626/5/4/algonquin-indians-sell-island-of-manhattan-to-dutch-colonist-peter-minuit-for-sixty-guilders

Algonquian (Algonkin) Tribe __ A good resource for kids with many links to related material - From kidport.com - http://www.kidport.com/reflib/socialstudies/nativeamericans/algonquian.htm

Algonquin Anishinabeg Nation Tribal Council __ Learn about the council, its activities and goals. You will also find information about the communities making up the council. - illustrated - From anishinabenation.ca - http://www.anishinabenation.ca/

The Algonquian and Great Lakes Tribes __ "The Algonquins and Great Lake tribes lived in villages which usually had eight or nine hundred Indians. In the village the Indians built dome-shaped wigwams which they made from saplings covered with birch, chestnut, oak, or elm." A good web site for kids by kids. - illustrated - From mce.k12tn.net - http://www.mce.k12tn.net/indians/reports1/algonquian.htm 

The Algonquin Indians ___A very good overview of Algonquin history and traditional customs. "The Algonquin Indians are the most populous and widespread North American Native groups, with tribes originally numbering in the hundreds and speaking several related dialects." - Illustrated - From Norm Léveillée - http://www.normlev.net/ancestry/algonquin/algonquin.htm

Algonquian Indian Tribes ___Get general information about the Algonquian tribes from this page. Facts are provided in question and answer format. There is also a good definition of what and who the Algonquins are. This site was designed to be useful for kids. Tons of links to relevant information. Some Algonquian photos. - Illustrated - From Native Languages of the Americas - http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/algonquian_kids.htm 

Algonquin Language and the Algonquin Indian Tribe __ Algonkin language information and introduction to the culture of the Algonquins (or Algonkins) of Ontario and Quebec. - From native-languages.org - http://www.native-languages.org/algonquin.htm

Algonquins of Pikwŕkanagŕn __ "Welcome to a proud and progressive Algonquin community. Pikwŕkanagŕn is situated on the beautiful shores of the Bonnechere River and Golden Lake." Official tribal web site. - illustrated - From algonquinsofpikwakanagan.com - http://www.algonquinsofpikwakanagan.com/Main%20Page%20Introduction%202004.htm 

Algonquin Place Names ___A short English introduction is followed by it Algonquian translation, and following that is a list of Quebec colonial places, also translated. - Text only - From Norm Léveillée - http://www.normlev.net/ancestry/algonquin/algonquinplacenames.htm 

Algonquin Tribe ___"... it is likely that the Algonquin group had its origin, or at some remote time had established itself, in the vicinity of New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland and eastern Pennsylvania... The essay you'll find here is much too advanced for younger students. It would be more appropriate for upper secondary school classes. - Text only - From Norm Léveillée - http://www.normlev.net/ancestry/algonquin/algonquinpeople.htm 

The Algonquin Tribe __ An introduction to the Algonquin for the younger student. - From thinkquest.org - http://library.thinkquest.org/6299/algon.htm

Algonquin Tribe and Nation __ "The Algonquin Indians are the most populous and widespread North American Native groups, with tribes originally numbering in the hundreds and speaking several related dialects."  A general overview. - From algonquinindians.com - http://www.algonquinindians.com/   

Facts for Kids: Algonquin Indians (Algonquins) ___"How do you pronounce "Algonquin?" How do you spell it, and what does it mean? How is the Algonquin Indian nation organized? How do Algonquin Indian children live, and what did they do in the past?" The answers to these (and many other questions) are here in easy-to-understand language. Highlighted words within the text lead you to further information about, and pictures of, the topic at hand. - Illustrated - From Native Languages of the Americas -http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/algonquin_kids.htm

First Peoples: Algonquins __ An archived article containing  brief cultural and demographic information about the nine Algonquin nations of Quebec. - From bigorrin.org - http://www.bigorrin.org/archive44.htm 

Golden Lake Algonquins __ A brief look at this people. - From hilaroad.com - http://www.hilaroad.com/camp/nation/goldlake.html 

Location of the Algonquin Groups __ A map of the 17th-century territory of the Algonkin tribe. - From leveillee.net - http://www.leveillee.net/ancestry/algonkin.jpg 

Native American Indian Legends - Algonquin Creation Myth __ An Algonquin creation tale. - From firstpeople.us - http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Legends/AlgonquinCreationMyth-Algonquin.html

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Anishinabe / Ojibwe / Chippewa Indians

Anishinabe ___"The Anishinabe are the third largest Indian tribe in North America... they were the only Indian nation to defeat the Sioux." Get some good information about this people's history and culture. Highlighted text will take you to pages about the topic at hand. - Illustrated - From emuseum -
http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/history/mncultures/anishinabe.html 

Anishinabe - Ojibwe - Chippewa: Culture of an Indian Nation ___"This lesson provides information and activities about one American Indian Nation, the Anishinabe, called Ojibwe in Canada and Chippewa in the U.S., and engages students in research on its history, location, and past and present culture." - 1 photo - From EDSITEment - http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=369 

Chippewa/Ojibway/Anishinabe Literature ___Tribal information, traditional stories, quotations and links to treaties can be found here. - Text only -  From Glenn Welker - http://www.indians.org/welker/chippewa.htm 
 
Chippewa Valley Museum ___A multi-page article which provides good information about this people. From any of the pages you can use the button links across the top to access information about the museum and its exhibits. - Illustrated - From the Chippewa Valley Museum - http://www.cvmuseum.com/pathslong.html

Facts for Kids: Ojibwa Indians __ General information in the form of questions and answers along with embedded links to additional materials. - From bigorrin.org - http://www.bigorrin.org/chippewa_kids.htm 
 
KBIC ___Tribal service, departments and programs are the sections here. The 'Quick Launch' menu links to empty pages. - Text only - From the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community - http://www.kbic-nsn.gov

Kitigan Zibi Community Web Site __ "You will find many links that will guide you to information about our settings, our business resources, our education system, our heritage and much more." - Illustrated; animations require Flash plug-in - From the Kitigan Zibi Education Council -
http://www.kza.qc.ca/ 

The Minnesota Chippewa Tribe ___"The Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, comprised of the Bois Forte, Fond du Lac, Grand Portage, Leech Lake, Mille Lacs, and White Earth reservations, is a federally recognized tribal government that, through unified leadership, promotes and protects the member Bands while providing quality services and technical assistance to the reservation governments and tribal people." Find invaluable information here. - Illustrated - From the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe - http://www.mnchippewatribe.org/ 

Nin.Da.Waab.Jig - 'Those Who Seek to Find' ___ - From the Walpole Island Heritage Centre - "Walpole Island and the surrounding region is called Bkejwanong or "where the waters divide." It has been home to aboriginal people for over six thousand years." Among other things, you'll find an excellent tribal profile. - Illustrated - From the Walpole Island Heritage Centre - http://www.bkejwanong.com/ 

Ojibwa ___Topics include social conventions, history and political organization. - Text only - From EthnoAtlas - http://lucy.ukc.ac.uk/EthnoAtlas/Hmar/Cult_dir/Culture.7862

Ojibwe ___"Canada recognizes more than 600 First Nations - more than 130 of which are Ojibwe (at least in part). These are located in Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. In the United States, 22 Chippewa groups have federal recognition." Learn about them here. - Text only - From
Lee Sultzman - http://www.tolatsga.org/ojib.html 

Ojibwe Clan System __ Learn how the Ojibwe clan systems functions and why it came into being. "People of all nations in the world essentially have the same basic needs: food, protection, education, medicine and leadership. Traditionally, the Ojibway Clan System was created to provide leadership and to care for these needs. There were seven original clans and each clan was known by its animal emblem, or totem. The animal totem symbolized the strength and duties of the clan. The seven original clans were given a function to serve for their people." - From National Adult Literacy Database - http://www.nald.ca/CLR/chikiken/page23.htm 

Ojibway Culture and History ___Use the highlighted text within each section to access further information about such topics as the clan system, spirituality, the migration, and the naming ceremony. - Illustrated - From Kevin L. Callahan - http://www.tc.umn.edu/~call0031/ojibwa.html 
 
Ojibwe Language and the Ojibwe Indian Tribe (Chippewa, Ojibway, Ojibwa, Anishinaabemowin) __ Here is a good overview of the Chippewa language. "Ojibwe--otherwise anglicized as Chippewa, Ojibwa or Ojibway and known to its own speakers as Anishinabe or Anishinaabemowin--is an Algonquian language spoken by 50,000 people in the northern United States and southern Canada." Lots of additional links - From Native Languages.org - http://www.native-languages.org/chippewa.htm 

Red Lake Nation __ Official website for this group. "The Red Lake Band has lived here since the Sioux or Dakota people moved from the area in the mid-1700's. There are historical sites of Indian Battles and Battle River and Sandy River where the last battle was fought between the Sioux (Dakota) and the Chippewa (Ojibwe) in 1765." You will find news, history and articles covering history and culture. - illustrated - From Red Lake Nation - http://www.redlakenation.org/ 

Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan Home Page __ Official website for this group. You will find news, current events, articles and editorials as well as culture and history. - illustrated - From - Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan - http://www.sagchip.org/ 

The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians __ Official website for this group. You will find news, current events, articles and editorials as well as culture and history. - illustrated - From The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians - http://www.sootribe.org/ 

TMBCI.net ___Sections include location, people and government.Flash Player required. - Illustrated - From the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Tribe - http://www.tmbci.net/

Welcome to Batchawana First Nation of Ojibways ___"This web site is intended to provide... visitors with an overview of Batchewana First Nations' history, programming, services, and other general information." - Illustrated - From Batchewana First Nation of Ojibways - http://www.batchewana.ca/ 
 
Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve ___"Wikwemikong is recognized as Canada's only Unceded Indian Reserve, meaning that the Wikwemikong Band has not relinquished title to it's land to the government by treaty or otherwise. 'Wikwemikong' translated means 'Bay of the beaver.'" - Text only - From the Wikwemikong Unceded Indian Reserve - http://www.wiky.net/

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Creek Indian Tribe

The Beginnings of the Creek Trail of Tears __ "TODAY, on a hilltop near Fort Mitchell, Russell County, Alabama, stands a MEMORIAL to the Creek Indians who lived in the Chattahoochee Valley area until their forced removal in the mid-nineteenth century." Learn about the monument and the history it represents. - From bama.ua.edu - http://web.archive.org/web/20010918050347/bama.ua.edu/~rdobson/family/CreekMem.htm

1832 Creek Census ___"By a treaty of March 24, 1832, the Creek Indians ceded to the United States all of their land east of the Mississippi River. Heads of families were entitled to tracts of land, which, if possible, were to include their improvements. In 1833 Benjamin S. Parsons and Thomas J. Abbott prepared a census of Creek Indian heads of families, which gave their names and the number of males, females, and slaves in each family. The entries were arranged by town and numbered; these numbers were used for identification in later records. This census is only a partial depiction of the 1832 Creek Census." Information is categorized by pages for 16 towns. - Text only - From AccessGenealogy - http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/1832creek/

Creek Indian Researcher - records and links __ You will find many, many resources about the Creek Indians. Don't bother with the page. If you go there you will have no need to come back here. - From rootsweb.com - http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~texlance/main.htm

Creek Indian Tribe __ "Creek, A confederacy forming the largest division of the Muskhogean family. They received their name form the English on account of the numerous streams in their country."  A brief history and culture overview. - From accessgenealogy.com - http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/creek/creekhist.htm 

Creek Indians __ Summary of the Muskogee Indians, their culture and history. - From Minnesota State University - http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/creek_indians.html 

The Creek Nation ___Access a history of the Creek Nation in Georgia and a list of the tribes within the Creek Confederacy. - Text only - From Golden Ink - http://www.ngeorgia.com/history/creek.html 

Creek Nation Genealogy - Muscogee Nation Indian Territory ___Researchers of Creek genealogy in Oklahoma will appreciate the extensive information provided on this website. Students will find the background history useful, too. - Illustrated - From Darren McCathern - http://www.genealogynation.com/creek/ 

Creek people __ "The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee ( or Muskogee ), the name they use to identify themselves today." An encyclopedic article with links to related subjects. - From wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creek_people

Facts for Kids: Creek Indians (Muscogee Creeks) __ Information about the Creek Indians for students and teachers. Facts about Creek Indian food, clothing, houses, villages, art and crafts, weapons and tools and even more. - From Native Languages of the Americas - http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/creek_kids.htm

History of the Creek Indians in Georgia __ You will find the history of the Creek ( Muskogee ) divided into three click-to-read sections. - From ourgeorgiahistory.com - http://ourgeorgiahistory.com/indians/Creek/index.html 

History of the Creek Nation ___This is a history "prior to 1828, while they were still in Georgia." Click on the underlined text to get further information about the topic at hand. - 1 image - From Golden Ink - http://www.ngeorgia.com/history/creekhistory.html 

Horseshoe Bend - Creek War ___The battle of Horseshoe Bend spelled the end for the Red Sticks. Read about it here. - A few images - From the National Park Service - http://www.nps.gov/hobe/home/creekwar.htm

Indian Sketches by John Trumbull __ "John Trumbull (1756-1843) sketched the four Creeks shown ... in July 1790 in New York City. They were there as part of a delegation to negotiate a treaty with the United States." - illustrated - From rhus.com - http://www.rhus.com/port.html

Mary Musgrove, Queen of the Creek __ This Creek woman and her first husband sold James Oglethorpe the first Georgia land. She returned years later and tried to lead a revolt against the colony. A biographical sketch. - From ngeorgia.com - http://ngeorgia.com/people/musgrove.html

Muscogee (Creek) __ "The Muscogee (or Muskogee), also known as the Creek or Creeks, are a Native American people traditionally from the southeastern United States."  An encyclopedic article with links to related material. - illustrated - From wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscogee_%28Creek%29

Muscogee (Creek) Nation __ Official website of the Muscogee Creek Nation.  Jam-packed with all kinds of information. - illustrated - From muscogeenation-nsn.gov - http://www.muscogeenation-nsn.gov/  

Poarch Band of Creek Indians __ Learn about the only Federally recognized Indian band to still live in Alabama. - illustrated - From poarchcreekindians-nsn.gov - http://www.poarchcreekindians-nsn.gov/xhtml/index.htm 

The War of 1812: The Creeks ___From this article you can learn about the events leading up to the Creek Civil War. Click on 'continue' at the bottom to access page two which discusses the rout of the Red Sticks by Andrew Jackson's forces and his Indian allies. - Text only - From Galafilm - http://www.galafilm.com/1812/e/people/creeks.html

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Delaware Lenape Indians

Catholic Encyclopedia: Delaware Indians __ A good overview of the Delaware Indians and their history. "An important tribal confederacy of Algonquian stock originally holding the basin of the Delaware River, in Eastern Pennsylvania, U.S.A., together with most of New Jersey and Delaware. They call themselves Lenapé or Leni-lenapé, about equivalent to "real men". - From Catholic Encyclopedia - http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04695a.htm 
 
Common Bird Names in Lenape ___"On this page are photos and the Lenape names for some common birds. Click on the Lenape name to hear the bird's name as pronounced by Lenape speaker, Nora Thompson Dean, of the Touching Leaves Company in Dewey, OK or click on the bird's photo to hear its call." - Illustrated - From the Delaware Tribe of Indians - http://www.delawaretribeofindians.nsn.us/birds.html 

Delaware __ A concise and detailed history of the Delaware. "Originally in 1600, the Delaware River Valley from Cape Henlopen, Delaware north to include the west side of the lower Hudson Valley in southern New York. The Delaware were not migratory and appear to have occupied their homeland for thousands of years before the coming of the Europeans. During the next three centuries, white settlement forced the Delaware to relocate at least twenty times. By 1900 they had lived in: Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Ontario, Michigan, Indiana, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas, Wisconsin, Kansas, and Oklahoma. However, a government plan to move some of the Delaware to Minnesota was never carried out." - By Lee Sultzman - http://www.tolatsga.org/dela.html 

Delaware Clans, Gentes and Phraties ___Definitely a web page for serious researchers of Delaware family history. - Text only - From AccessGenealogy - 
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/delaware/delawareclans.htm 

Delaware Clothing Styles ___Actually, the clothing of three tribes is presented here. As well as the first section, which is indeed the Delaware, you can get information about the Fox and the Huron. - Illustrated - From Canku Ota -
http://www.turtletrack.org/Issues02/Co04062002/CO_04062002_RegaliaOuterwear.htm 

Delaware Indian Chiefs and Leaders ___Learn about the chiefs who made an impact on Delaware and North American history. As well, there is a section about Delaware social structure. - Text only - From AccessGenealogy -
http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/delaware/delawarechiefs.htm

Delaware Indian - History and Discussion __ "The Delaware people were a sedentary matriarchal society, and relied heavily on agriculture to survive." You will find history, social anthropology, myth and more. - illustrated - from Delaware Indian.com - http://www.delawareindian.com/ 

Delaware Indians __ Here is a good overall website about the Delaware Indians. You will find articles about Deleware medicine, history and more. "I occasionally use the word "Indians in my report...Indians was the historical name for Native Americans, and not to confuse youth researching on this website.Most present day Delaware appreciate being addressed as Native Americans." - illustrated - By Linda Mauser - http://www.delawareindians.com/ 

Delaware Indians __ "Some Native American histories have relegated the Delaware Indians to the status of a minor east coast tribe, yet the Lenni Lenape, as they called themselves, were originally the most powerful Indian Tribe in the East, perhaps in the Americas." While this is a book review, there is enough information in the excerpt to make a visit worthwhile, if for the opening statement quoted above alone. - From Hope Farm Press - http://www.hopefarm.com/indians2.htm 

Delaware Indians ___A short article, with links, to information about the Lenape in Texas, - Text only - From the Spider's Nest - http://www.bjgeiger.com/texas/history/indians/delawares.html 

Delaware Indian Villages ___A list of almost 12 dozen Delaware villages. - Text only - From AccessGenealogy - http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/delaware/delawarevillages.htm 

Delaware (Lenape) Tribe of Indians: Homepage __ "The name DELAWARE was given to the people who lived along the Delaware River, and the river in turn was named after Lord de la Warr, the governor of the Jamestown colony. The name Delaware later came to be applied to almost all Lenape people. In our language, which belongs to the Algonquian language family, we call ourselves LENAPE (len-NAH-pay) which means something like "The People." Here you will find history, social anthropology, current events, questions and answers. - illustrated - From The Delaware Tribe - http://www.delawaretribeofindians.nsn.us/

The Delaware, Oh Web Page - Delaware's History - The Delaware ...___A history of the Delaware people in Ohio. - Text only - From The Delaware, OH Web Page - http://www.delaware.org/history/indians.htm 

Facts for Kids: Lenni Lenape Indian Tribe...___Thirteen questions concerning Lenape culture are answered here in a way that students of all ages can comprehend. - Text only - From Native Americans for Children - http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/lenape_kids.htm 

The Indian King Tavern Museum: Named For the Lenni Lenape ___Cultural and historical information. - Text only - From Hoag Levins - http://www.levins.com/ik6.html

Lenape Football ___"History and rules of Pahsaheman, a traditional Lenape ball game played between men and women." - Text only - From the Delaware Tribe of Indians - http://www.delawaretribeofindians.nsn.us/football.html 

Lenape Language and the Delaware Indian Tribe ___"An overview of the Leni Lenape people, their language and history." - Text only - From Native American Languages - http://www.native-languages.org/lenape.htm 

Lenape Moccasins ___On this page you're going to see wonderful photographs of some very beautiful moccasins. - Illustrated - From NativeTech - http://www.nativetech.org/clothing/moccasin/detail/lenape.html 

The Lenape or Delaware Indians ___A short page, with links. - Text only -  From Bob Barnett - http://westjersey.org/wj_len.htm 

Marks in Time: Delaware Indian Treaties ___"Welcome to a unique, on-line resource for Delaware treaty history. The Delaware, or Lenape, tribe of Indians, signed the first-ever "Indian treaty" with the newly-born United States of America in 1778." _ Text only - From Indian Territory - http://members.tripod.com/~lenapelady/deltreaty1.html

Penn and the Indians ___What a great history! It concerns William Penn's (of Pennsylvania fame) dealings with the Delaware tribe of Indians. "Penn realized, unlike many Americans of the 19th century, the complex differences between various tribes-- and the benefits of distinguishing between them." - Illustrated - From Tuomi J. Forrest - http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CAP/PENN/pnind.html 

Walum Olum ___There are varied opinions about the authenticity of this work. Here's an article which provides no opinion on that, but describes it as a viable manuscript. "The sacred tribal chronicle of the Lenape or Delawares. The name signifies 'painted tally' or 'red score,' from walam, 'painted,' particularly 'red painted,' and olum,' a score or tally.'" - Text only -  From AccessGenealogy - http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/walamolum.htm

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Huron / Wendat Indians

Facts for Kids: Wyandot Indians (Wyandots) __ "Information about the Wyandot Indians for students and teachers." - From bigorrin.org - http://www.bigorrin.org/wyandot_kids.htm

History of the Wyandot (Huron) to 1614___This overview covers the years up to the beginning of the Wyandot/Huron association with the new French settlements. - Text only - From James Hunter and the Huronia Museum, Midland, Ontario, Canada - http://www.wyandot.org/wn_early.htm 

Huron ___A good article which provides an overview of Huron daily life, history and government. - Text only - From emuseum - http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/huron.html

Huron __ "Americans usually do not realize that Huron and Wyandot are the same people." You will find a listing of sub-nations and villages/missions, culture, and a good history. - http://www.tolatsga.org/hur.html 

Huron Indian Homes ___This a brief, but informative, description of the Huron traditional longhouse. - Illustrated - Source unknown - http://members.tripod.com/blazewicz/Homes.htm 

The Huron Indians ___"The history, culture, religion and way of life of these fierce Huron woodland Indians." - Text only - From Pagewise, Inc. - http://caca.essortment.com/huronindians_rjru.htm

The Huron Indians ___Location and population are two of the topics covered here. The green text is a bit hard on the eyes. - Text only - Source unknown - http://members.tripod.com/paullife/huronindians.html 

Huron Indians ___A rather lengthy page for an encyclopedic entry, but chockful of good information. - Text only - From the Catholic Encyclopedia - http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07565a.htm 

Resources on the Huron/Wendat Confederacy __ List of online resources. - From mongabay.com - http://www.mongabay.com/indigenous_ethnicities/north_american/Huron_Wendat_Confederacy.html 

Vocabularies of the Shawanoese and Wyandott Languages ___"The development of the seventeenth century Huron tribal alliance is investigated using evidence from dialect analysis of the phonetic features found in writings of the Wendat language (Huron and Petun)." As you can see, this page is for advanced students. - Text only - From John Steckley, Humber College - http://www.wyandot.org/lang1.html 

Wendat Dialects and the Development of the Huron Alliance ___"These dialect connections have implications for how various groups of speakers of Wendat were politically associated prior to the founding of the 'Huron' and the 'Petun' as distinct configurations of peoples. Finally, some speculative remarks are made as to the nature of the mysterious Bog tribe of the Huron, about which so little is known." As you can see from this quote, the information here is presented in a scholarly fashion and is intended for students at an advanced level of education. - Text only - From John Steckley, Humber College - http://www.wyandot.org/wendat.htm

Wendat Confederacy ___This is the text of the document which formed the Wendat Confederacy. It's dated August, 1999 and you can read the names of the chiefs who signed it. - From wyandot.org - http://www.wyandot.org/confederacy.html 

Wyandot __To access information relevant to what you'll find in this encyclopedic entry, click on any hoghlighted text. - Text only - From Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wyandot

Wyandot Language and the Wyandot/Huron Tribe (Wendat, Wyandotte) __ "Wyandot language information and introduction to the culture of the Wyandotte/Huron Indians." - From native-languages.org - http://www.native-languages.org/wyandot.htm

Wyandot Nation of Kansas Website ___A huge site which will take a big chunk of your research time to get through. Topics include history, genealogy and language. - Illustrated - From the Wyandot Nation of Kansas - http://www.wyandot.org/ 

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Kikapoo Indians

Ethnogue Report For Language Code: KIC ___Data about this language and links to further information. For advanced students. - Text only - From Ethnologue - http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=KIC 

Facts For Kid: Kickapoo Indians (Kickapoos) ___"... here are some straightforward answers to the questions we are most often asked by children, with Kickapoo pictures and links we believe are especially suitable for all ages." - Illustrated - From Native American Kid Links - http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/kickapoo_kids.htm

First nations - Kickapoo __ An extended look at Kickapoo history, culture, location and more. - From tolatsga.org - http://www.tolatsga.org/kick.html 

The Flight of the Kickapoos ___Why did the Kickapoo beat a fast retreat out of Kansas? The background, story, and conclusion can be found here in this brief article published in 1921. - Text only - From the Chronicles of Oklahoma -
http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v001/v001p150.html 

Kickapoo __ "The Kickapoos are one of the Algonquian speaking Native American tribes. According to the Anishinaabeg, the name "Kickapoo" (Giiwigaabaw in the Anishinaabe language) means "Stands Here and there" and refers to the tribes migratory patterns." - An encyclopedic article. - From wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kickapoo

The Kickapoo Indian history __ "During the American Revolution the Kickapoo tried to remain neutral. By the mid 1870’s, however, they were engaging on an increasing number of raids against the Americans." An overview of Kickapoo history. - From essortment.com - http://wvwv.essortment.com/kickapooindian_rjoh.htm 

The Kickapoo Indians ___A good history of this people and links to information about such things as how to build a wickiup. - Illustrated - By Rebecca Brush - http://www.texasindians.com/kickapoo.htm 

Kickapoo Indians ___This encyclopedic entry was written in 1910. - Text only - From the Catholic Encyclopedia- http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08635c.htm

Kickapoo Indians ___Various, brief articles reporting the latest news about the Kickapoo people. - Text only - From vintage newspapers (eg. Walnut Valley Times, June 20, 1873) - http://www.ausbcomp.com/~bbott/cowley/OLDNEWS/WORTMAW/KICKAPOO.htm

kickapoo indians __ A good introduction to the Kickapoo, then a handful of interesting articles about the Kickapoo - From the 19th century. Interesting stuff. - From ausbcomp.com - http://www.ausbcomp.com/~bbott/cowley/OLDNEWS/WORTMAW/KICKAPOO.htm

Kickapoo Language and the Kickapoo Indian Tribe (Kikapoo, Kikapu) ___Information about Kickapoo language, people and history, plus links to further information. - Text only - From Native Languages of the Americas -
http://www.native-languages.org/kickapoo.htm 

National Geographic: Lewis & Clark—Tribes—Kickapoo Indians __ An overview of the Kickapoo Tribe and a single Kickapoo photo. - illustrated - From National Geographic Society - http://www.nationalgeographic.com/lewisandclark/record_tribes_008_22.html 

Texas Kickapoo ___A very brief overview of this Texas tribe. - Text only -
http://www.bjgeiger.com/texas/history/indians/kickapoos.html 

Volatile Substance Abuse Among the Kickapoo People in the Eagle Pass, Texas Area, 1993___ "This study includes ethnographic information about the Texas/Mexican Kickapoo and their language." This is a PDF file and, as such, requires the free Adobe Acrobat Reader software. For more mature students and interested parties. - From the Texas Commission on Drug and Alcohol Abuse Research Briefs -
http://www.tcada.state.tx.us/research/populations/Kickapo.pdf 

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Maliseet Indians

Cacouna - Origin of the Malecites ___"History of the Malecites and their relations with other Indian tribes of the region, written in 1898." - 1 map - From Cacouna, QC - http://cacouna.net/originemalecites_e.htm 

CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Maliseet Indians ___The history and information provided is not current -- it ends in 1905. - Text only - From the Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX - http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09570a.htm 

Maliseet Indian Tribe (Malecite, Malécite, Malecites, Wolastoqiyik, Wolastoqewi) ___You can link to relevant information by clicking on the highlighted text in these brief paragraphs. Topics covered are language, people and history. - Text only - From Native Languages of the Americas - http://www.native-languages.org/maliseet.htm

Maliseet Indians Fact Sheet ___This page poses and answers 18 questions about the Maliseet people. Link via the highlighted text to access images and further information about the topic at hand. - Text only - From Native Americans for Kids - http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/maliseet_kids.htm

Welcome - Portraits of a People ___"Wolastoqiyik - Portrait of A People is a photographic journey into the lifestyles, landscapes, technologies and spoken histories of a People." Click on 'Enter' to get started; click on the thumbnails to view larger images. - Illustrated - From the Abbe Museum,
Maine - http://www.gnb.ca/0007/Heritage/virtual_exibition/Portraits/Welcome.htm 
 
Woodstock First Nation ___Information about this first Nation's government, services, businesses and history are some of what you'll find here. - Text only - From the Woodstock First Nation - http://www.woodstockfirstnation.com/home.htm

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Mi'kMaq Indians

Aboriginal Peoples: The Mi'kmaq: Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage __ "Historians and archaeologists differ as to when the Mi'kmaq first came to Newfoundland. Newfoundland Mi'kmaq oral tradition holds that the Mi'kmaq were living in Newfoundland prior to European contact. There is some historical evidence that the Mi'kmaq were living in Newfoundland by the 16th century, and by the 17th century there are increasing references to the Mi'kmaq in the historical record." History and culture - illustrated - From Memorial University of Newfoundland - http://www.heritage.nf.ca/aboriginal/micmac.html

Big Cove First Nations ___"Our Web site has featured several facilities and programs found on the Reserve. We have also included pictures to most of the facilities along with contact information, up and coming special events but also on-going programs in our community. We also highlighted a few of our Entrepreneurs, as well as selected Mi'kmaq links that may interest you." - Illustrated - From the Big Cove First Nation - http://www.bigcoveband.com/ 

Carved in Stone: Mi'kmaw Petroglyphs ___For excellent general information about petroglyphs and to view some examples of those recorded in 1887 by George Creed, check out this website. Excellent text accompanies the tracings and provides an insight into the culture of the people who made the carvings. - Illustrated - From the Nova Scotia Museum of Cultural History - http://museum.gov.ns.ca/imagesns/petroglyphs/index.html 

Facts For Kids: Micmac Indians ___This page poses and answers 18 questions about the Micmac people. Link via the highlighted text to access images and further information about the topic at hand. - Text only - From Native Americans for Kids - http://www.geocities.com/bigorrin/mikmaq_kids.htm

Info Sheet - The Mi'kmaq __ Here you will find many aspects of Mi'knaq life and history. "The First Nations People of Nova Scotia are known as the Mi'kmaq. At the time of first contact with European explorers in the 16th and 17th centuries the Mi'kmaq lived in the region now known as the Maritime provinces and the Gaspé peninsula. Later they also settled in New England and Newfoundland. The Mi'kmaq called themselves L'nu'k, meaning "the people." The term Mi'kmaq comes from their word nikmak, meaning "my kin-friends." - illustrated - From Nova Scotia Museum - http://museum.gov.ns.ca/arch/infos/mikmaq1.htm 
 
Listuguj First Nation ___The map shows this First Nation's location in eastern Quebec. - Illustrated - From Listuguj First Nation Government - http://www.johnco.com/firstnat/listuguj.html

Micmac ___Location, population, names, language, sub-nations, current villages and reserves, culture and history. - Text only - From Lee Sultzman - http://www.dickshovel.com/mic.html 

Micmac Medicines, Foods and Teas ___"... plants and trees used as traditional medicines, foods and teas, by the Mi'kmaq people of Atlantic Canada." Click on each plants name to get further information. - Illustrated - From NativeTech - http://www.nativetech.org/lacey/

Mi'kmaq Language and the Mi'kmaq Indian Tribe ___You can link to relevant information by clicking on the highlighted text in these brief paragraphs. Topics covered are language, people and history. - Text only - From Native Languages of the Americas - http://www.native-languages.org/mikmaq.htm 

Mi'kmaq Portraits Collection ___"This website features 800 selections from the Nova Scotia Museum's Mi'kmaq Portraits Database... The Nova Scotia Museum's Mi'kmaq Portraits database is a collection of portraits and illustrations in various media, of the Mi'kmaq of Atlantic Canada." - Illustrated - From the Nova Scotia Museum - http://museum.gov.ns.ca/mikmaq/

Mi'kmaw Language, Spirituality & Medicine ___An essay (not suited to younger grades) about this people's religious beliefs and medicinal practices. - Text only - From the Native Council of Nova Scotia - http://mrc.uccb.ns.ca/culture.html 

Native Lore: MicMac Creation Story ___"This story has been passed down from generation to generation since time immemorial and it explains how Mik'Maq people came into existence in North America." Read it here. - Text only -  From Native Lore - http://www.ilhawaii.net/~stony/lore21.html   

Prince Edward Island b. Mi'kmaq Community ___Give the images a click to access a page from which you can download them for personal use only. Good text accompanies each photo. - Illustrated - From Prince Edward Island Official Website - http://www.gov.pe.ca/firsthand/index.php3?number=43768

Religious Traditions of the Micmac of Newfoundland ___Is there a Micmac curse? Find out here as you read these interesting stories from Micmac lore. - Text only - From Dr. Hans Rollmann - http://www.mun.ca/rels/native/micmac/micmac1.html 

Welcome to Chapel Island ___Useful information, especially for band members, in such categories as band council, health care and education for this Mi'kmaw First Nation in Nova Scotia. - Text only - From the Chapel Island First Nation - http://www.chapelisland.ednet.ns.ca/main.html 

Welcome to the Official Website of the Aroostook Band of Micmacs ___This page offers an overview. more specific information is available from the topic buttons to the left of your screen. These include government, history and legal issues. - Occasional illustration - From the Aroostook Band of Micmacs - http://www.micmac-nsn.gov/index.html 

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Osage Indians

Native Americans: Osage Tribe | eThemes | eMINTS __ Learn about the culture, clothing, and customs of the Osage Indians. View photographs and read primary documents that describe this tribe. Osage lesson plan. - From emints.org - http://www.emints.org/ethemes/resources/S00000146.shtml

Osage __ Summary of Osage history and culture. - From Minnesota State University - http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/northamerica/osage.html

Osage Indian Tribe __ "Geographically speaking, the tribe consists of three bands: the Pahatsi or Great Osage, Utsehta or Little Osage, and Santsukhdhi or Arkansas band. These appear to be comparatively modern, however, and the Osage recognize three more closely amalgamated divisions which seem, from the traditional account of them, to represent as many formerly independent tribes." A general overview with emphasis on Osage Treaties. - From nanations.com - http://www.nanations.com/osage/index.htm 

Osage Indian Tribe __ Some specific cultural information about the Osage, such as "the fireplaces" etc, along with resources for additional information. - From kansasgenealogy.com - http://www.kansasgenealogy.com/indians/osage_indian_tribe.htm

Osage Indian Tribe History __ "Osage (corruption by French traders of Wazhazhe, their own name). The most important southern Siouan tribe of the western division. Dorsey classed them, under the name Dhegiha, in one group with the Omaha, Ponca, Kansa, and Quapaw, with whom they are supposed to have originally constituted a single body living along the lower course of the Ohio river." An overview of Osage history. - From accessgenealogy.com - http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/osage/osagehist.htm

Osage Indians __ "The Osages are so tall and robust as almost to warrant the application of the term gigantic: few of them appear to be under six feet, and many are above it. Their shoulders and visages are broad, which tend to strengthen the idea of their being giants." --John Bradbury" A general overview of the Osage with a single picture. - illustrated - From lewis-clark.org - http://www.lewis-clark.org/content/content-article.asp?ArticleID=2535

Osage Nation __ "The Osage Nation is a Native American tribe in the United States, which is mainly based in Osage County, Oklahoma, but can still be found throughout America." An encyclopedic article. - From wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osage_Nation

Osage Nation Archives __ "Most of the Osage live in Osage County, which was organized from their former reservation when Oklahoma was admitted to the Union as a state in 1907. The Osage that remained in Oklahoma live in one of three communities or "villages," each of which was originally settled by the members of one of three traditional groups within the tribal organization: "Dweller-in-the-Hilltop" at Gray Horse, "Dwellers-in the Upland-Forest" at Hominy, and "Dwellers-in-the-Thorny-Thicket" at Pawhuska." You will find historic archives of the Osage from various sources and 'resources' for even more. - From rootsweb.com - http://www.rootsweb.com/%7Eusgenweb/ok/nations/osage/index.htm

The Osage Tribe __ Official website, sponsored by the Osage Tribal Council, includes history, newsletter, and contact information with many articles and Osage photos. - illustrated - From osagetribe.com - http://www.osagetribe.com/ 

Protestant Missions Among the Osages ___Learn why the Osage people requested help from Protestant missionaries and what their lives were like at this time. - Text only - By Morris L. Wardell - http://digital.library.okstate.edu/Chronicles/v002/v002p285.html

 

 

 

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