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Ancient Farming and Agriculture

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Agricultural Advance by Yandi Shennongshi - and Hunam Ancient Rice Culture__ "Abstract: While there are different views of the Yandi Shennongshi legendary entity in ancient books and literature, we may still be able to systematically verify and discuss ties between his agricultural policy and Hunan ancient rice culture, based on extant archaeological data." - http://www.carleton.ca/~bgordon/Rice/papers/KuangDR2000.htm

Agriculture of ancient Greece __ "Agriculture was the foundation of the Ancient Greek economy. Nearly 80% of the population was involved in this activity." An encyclopedic article. - illustrated - From wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture_of_ancient_Greece

Agriculture, Land Between Two Rivers - Ancient Mesopotamia for Kids __ Article and resources for kids with lesson plans, stories and games. - From mrdonn.org - http://mesopotamia.mrdonn.org/agriculture.html

Agriculture in Mesoamerica __ An encyclopedic article with links to related materials. - From Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agriculture_in_Mesoamerica   

Ancient Chinese Rice Archaeology Project __ You will find numerous papers dealing with farming practice in ancient China. - From an assortment of scholars - http://www.carleton.ca/~bgordon/Rice/.

Ancient Egypt: Farming __ "Most Egyptian people were farmers. Their main crops were the staples of life - emmer wheat and barley for making bread and beer, and flax for making linen cloth." A brief article about Egyptian farming. Links to related material. - illustrated - From University of Chicago - http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/ED/TRC/EGYPT/farming.html
Ancient Egyptian Farming __ "Hope you were able to afford a few animals such as some goats, pigs, ducks, cows, and geese. Animals were one of the most important things about farming. Animals helped you with jobs like trampling in the seeds, pulling your plow, eating unwanted grain or wheat and providing you with food and drink." A brief but good overview of ancient Egyptian farming techniques. - From Dragonstrike.com - http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/farm.htm

Ancient Farming - Methods of Ancient Farming __ Learn about the variety of ancient farming methods from around the world.  Article and many resources. - From about.com - http://archaeology.about.com/od/neolithic/tp/ancient_farming.htm


Ancient Farming Rituals of Sri Lanka __Rice cultivation in ancient Sri Lanka was treated with the greatest respect. Since the people were unaware of natural causes for crop failure or success, they used ritual to appease an unseen god or demon. Learn how these actions lead to effective farm practices. - FromRohan Jayetilleke/Sunday Observer - http://www.lankalibrary.com/rit/farming.htm

Ancient Kernel: Clue to Origins of Farming? __ "The earliest sign of agriculture in North America -- a tiny kernel of corn -- has been found in an Arizona cave by archaeologists at Berkeley and the University of New Mexico." A brief article. - From University of California, Berkeley - http://www.berkeley.edu/news/berkeleyan/1999/0224/kernel.html

Ancient Mesopotamian Farming __ "The climate of Mesopotamia was generally dry and there was very little rainfall so all these factors contributed to unsuccessful farming in this region. So to overcome this problem of farming Mesopotamians became depended on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers."  Perhaps a good introduction to the younger student. - From ancientmesopotamians.com - http://www.ancientmesopotamians.com/ancient-mesopotamian-farming.html 

Ancient System Helps Peruvian Farmers Handle Drought, Floods, Frost __ "Known as "waru waru," in the local Quechua language, the technique has proven an inexpensive way to improve crop yields and ease the punishing effects of farming at 12,500 feet above sea level on the Andean plains." A system which faded a thousand years ago is back producing crops. - illustrated - From USA Today - http://www.usatoday.com/weather/climate/2003-08-05-peru-farming_x.htm

Assignment Discovery: Ancient Farming Techniques __ Video - "Farmers at 14,000 feet face the problem of frost and poor soil. Learn about an ancient farming technique that uses raised fields to solve these problems..." - video - From howstuffworks.com - http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/29693-assignment-discovery-ancient-farming-techniques-video.htm

Aztecs: Farming and Agriculture __ While religion was the principal mover in Aztec life, farming was the principal activity. A brief overview of Aztec agriculture. - From thinkquest.org - http://library.thinkquest.org/16325/y-farm.html

Egypt: Ancient Egypt Farming __ "As early as the fifth millennium BC, the ancient Egyptians realized the extraordinary fruitfulness of their fields and the secret behind it - the deposits of black silt borne down by the river in flood time. Hence they called the soil of the Nile valley 'black earth' (kemet), as distinct from the 'red earth' (deshret) of the desert." Read a good synopsis of ancient Egyptian farming methods. - illustrated - From InterCity Oz, Inc. - http://www.touregypt.net/historicalessays/lifeinEgypt11.htm

Egyptian Farming - History for Kids! __ A general overview of ancient Egyptian farming for the younger student.- illustrated - From historyforkids.org - http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/egypt/economy/farming.htm

Farming in Ancient Egypt for kids __ An introduction to ancient Egyptian farming. - illustrated - From woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk - http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/Homework/egypt/farming.htm

Farming in Ancient Greece __ "Farming in Ancient Greece was difficult due to the limited amount of good soil and cropland. It is estimated that only twenty percent of the land was usable for growing crops."  An overview of farming in ancient Greece. - illustrated - From historylink102.com - http://www.historylink102.com/greece3/jobs-farming.htm

Farming and Agriculture in Mesopotamia __ A brief overview comparing farming in Mesopotamia to framing in Egypt  Would be a good introduction to the subject for the younger student. - illustrated - From berkeley.edu - http://best.berkeley.edu/~mesa/comm/group_1/louis.html  

Heathrow Dig Reveals Ancient Farming __ "Shedding new light on the development of farming, the archaeologists found that field boundaries laid down as early as 2,000 B.C. continued to be shown on maps in the 20th century." A brief news story about British archaeology and excavation at Heathrow International Airport. - illustrated - From The discovery Channel - http://dsc.discovery.com/news/afp/20030804/heathrow.html

History 331 texts, Roman farming __ "Almost everywhere a large part of the population was engaged in agnculture at a relatively low level, while industry depended on a backward technology and was rarely organised in large units."  Texts for a course. - From richmond.edu - https://facultystaff.richmond.edu/~wstevens/history331texts/farming.html

History of Horticulture __ "Mankind has been practicing horticulture for at least 11,000 years. We know from archaeological evidence that rice was grown in ancient China in about 9,500 B.C. Wheat and barley were grown by people in the area of present-day Iraq in about 8,000 B.C. Around the same time, millet was grown in Africa. Man probably began experimenting with the cultivation of wild plants well before then." - illustrated - From Artzia - http://artzia.com/Home/Garden/History/

Hohokam Farming Systems __ The subtitle of this is "How to survive 1,000 years in the desert." "The Hohokam did it from at least 500 to 1450 A.D. by being farmers and environmentalists at the same time. As farmers, they adapted their subsistence strategies to specific environmental conditions. As environmentalists, they used resources conservatively and minimized their impact on the ecosystem on which they depended." You will find a brief but interesting paper. - From International Ag-Sieve - http://fadr.msu.ru/rodale/agsieve/txt/vol5/3/art1.html

Maya Agriculture __ "Maya agriculture was the foundation of civilization. Populations in densely forested regions, such as El PetÚn, "The cradle of the Maya civilization", in Guatemala, often rely on slash-and-burn agriculture..."  A general overview of Maya agriculture ancient and modern - illustrated - From authenticmaya.com - http://www.authenticmaya.com/maya_agriculture.htm

Mesopotamia __ "The following are raw research notes on the development of farming in Ancient Mesopotamia." Links to other ancient farming notes too. Brief overview. - From historylink101.com - http://historylink101.com/lessons/farm-city/mes1.htm

Roman agriculture __ "Roman agriculture was highly regarded in Roman culture. Of the many commentators who praised simple rural life and endowed it with the aura of ancient Roman virtues, Virgil in his Georgics stands pre-eminent. Cicero considered farming the best of all Roman occupations, he writes in On Duties “But of all the occupations by which gain is secured, none is better than agriculture, none more profitable, none more delightful, none more becoming to a freeman…” An encyclopedic overview of Roman farms and farming. - From wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_agriculture

Roman Farming __ "Romans used mostly slaves to work in the fields. Slaves were widely available, and they provided cheap labor to work their fields. The fields were plowed with an ard-type plow, which is basically a heavy stick pulled by an ox. Later the ancient Romans  did add a coulter to the plow, which would help break up the soil before the plowshare would turn the soil over." A good overview of Roman farming. - From historylink102.com - http://historylink102.com/Rome/roman-farming.htm

A Taste of the Ancient World: Farming at Karanis __ "This photograph, taken during the excavations at Karanis, demonstrates that farmers in early 20th century Egypt used methods of grain processing similar to those employed in antiquity."  Many photos and comparisons of modern and ancient farming techniques. - illustrated - From umich.edu - http://www.umich.edu/~kelseydb/Exhibits/Food/text/farm.html


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