HAAB __ One of the three Maya calendars, and the one which
corresponds most closely to ours in length. The Haab is also known as
the "Vague Year" by archaeologists, since it is 365 days in length, or
about a quarter day short of the actual solar year.
HABITAT __ The
specific area where a species lives.
HABITATION AREA __ A generalized term
for a house or tent floor, or the remains of any other type of aboriginal
HABITATION SITE __ An archaeological site which served as a
residence. Evidence pointing toward this function might include remains
of dwelling structures and cooking areas.
HABITUS __ As defined by
Bourdieu, a culturally specific way not only of doing and speaking, but also of
seeing, thinking and categorising. Habitus tends to be"naturalized" in that it
is taken for granted or assimilated into the unconscious so that habitus is a
necessary condition of action and shared understanding.
HADES __ The underworld and also the name of the Greek god of the
underworld. The Romans called the god Hades, Pluto.
HADITH __ A collection of sayings and acts of Muhammad and the first
Muslims. They are the record of the Prophet's Sunna, which is second
only to the Quran in authority for Muslims.
HADRIAN __ Roman emperor
from 117 to 138 CE.
HAFT __ The handle of a knife, the shaft of a spear, etc.;
to equip with a haft.
HAFTING __ The process of equipping a blade (sense 2) with a handle; the handle
itself together with the bindings.
HALF LIFE __ The time elapsed when half the
atoms in a sample of a radioactive isotope (such as C14 or K40) have decayed, or
HAMMERSTONE __ A rounded cobble, sometimes equipped with a
groove to facilitate hafting. Signs of use may include pecking facets or
battering at the working end.
HAND AXE __ A core tool flaked on both sides,
generally fist-size, and commonly manufactured in the later portion of the Lower
Paleolithic and Middle Paleolithic periods.
HAND LEVEL __ A small, simple,
hand-held surveying instrument for establishing horizontal lines-of-sight over
HAND-MAUL __ A carefully manufactured unhafted stone hammer.
HANGING GARDENS OF BABYLON __ Huge step pyramids covered with lush
vegetation, built about 600 B.C. by King Nebuchadnezzar for his wife in
Mesopotamia, which is now modern Iraq. One of the Seven Wonders of the
Ancient World, the Hanging Gardens no longer exist.
HANNA __ A
corner-notched. expanding-stemmed, concave-based projectile point style of the
Middle Prehistoric Period in the Northern Plains. Hanna points are included
within the McKean Complex (Wheeler l954).
HARDNESS __ The quality of being resistant to scratching or deformation.
Hardness is considered to be a diagnostic attribute of pottery and is measured
by means of the Moh Scale. Aboriginal pottery in Manitoba ranges from 2 to
approximately 3.5 on this scale of l0.
HAREM __ A subunit of a larger social
group consisting of a male associated with two or more females.
HARPOON __ A spear with a (frequently) barbed, detachable head. Upon
striking the prey, the main shaft falls away and the harpoon head, with
a line attached, remains in the animal.
HARPOON HEAD __ The arming tip
of a harpoon. generally classifiable into 2 main forms - toggling and barbed -
each of which may be composite or single-piece, and may or may not carry
additional cutting-blades or side-blades. Always have line-guards or other means
of line attachment.
HASP __ A fastening device.
HATSHEPSUT __ Queen of New Kingdom Egypt from 1479
to 1458 B.C., first alongside her half-brother, Thutmosis II (who became her
husband), and then alongside her nephew, Thutmosis III. A great builder and
leader, she is often thought of as Egypt's greatest woman ruler.
HEARTH __ A
fireplace; an open area within which a fire has been deliberately kindled for
cooking, light or warmth. Such a feature may be defined on the basis of ash,
charcoal, blackened earth, an encircling ring of cobbles, fire-broken rock,
burned bones or a baked clay floor.
HEAT TREATMENT __ An aboriginal process by
which the flaking properties of a rock were improved by controlled heating in a
HEDJET __ A white crown. This was the crown of Upper Egypt (southern).
HEEL TOE STRIDE __ A method of progression characteristic of humans in which the
heel strikes the ground first and the person pushes off on the big toe.
HEGEMONY __ Preponderant influence or authority of one individual or social
group over another.
HELIOCENTRIC __ A sun-centered model of the universe.
HELLENISTIC PERIOD __ Historic period that begins after the death of
Alexander the Great. His empire was broken up and ruled by dynastics
mostly descended from his generals and were strongly influenced by Greek
HEMATITE __ A red to black oxide of iron having variable hardness and
commonly used as a point by Native North Americans. Hematite is also
known as red ochre, particularly in its softer forms or after having
HEPHAISTOS __ Greek god of fire and blacksmithing, known as
Vulcan by the Romans.
HERA __ Wife of Zeus and Greek goddess of family and
marriage. The Romans called her Juno.
HERAEA GAMES __ The female version of
the Greek Olympic Games. The games honored the goddess Hera, wife of Zeus, and
featured foot races for three different age groups along a 525-foot track. The
women ran in a tiny tunic (a chiton), which was cut to expose one breast. Like
men in the Olympic Games, winners of the Heraea Games received trophies.
HERAKLES __ Greek mythological hero, son of the god Zeus and the mortal Alkmene.
Known for courage and great strength. Called Hercules by the Romans.
HERCULANEUM __ Less famous than Pompeii but much better preserved, Herculaneum
was also buried by the A.D. 79 eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. The city lies two miles
northwest of Pompeii and was home to about 5,000 people. The city has been
difficult for excavators to uncover, because it lies under a substance harder
than concrete and because much of the modern Italian city of Ercolano was built
right on top of it.
HERCULES __ The legendary hero of Greek and Roman
mythology forced to perform Twelve Labors in order to make the Gods happy and
pay for the crime of killing his wife and children. Hercules is one of the most
commonly shown figures in ancient art. Called Herakles by the Greeks.
Sculpted stone pillar topped with a head.
HERMENEUTICS __ Principles of
interpretation; the term is often used with reference to the study of Jewish and
HERMES __ Greek god who was herald and messenger of the
other gods. Known as Mercury to the Romans.
HESPERIDES __ Nymphs who guarded
the golden apples, the stealing of which was the last of Hercules labors.
__ Wood shaped by heavy cutting or chopping blows struck by hand tools such as
axes or adzes.
HIERATIC __ Cursive Egyptian script derived from hieroglyphs.
Word comes from Greek hieratikos (priestly).
HIEROGLYPHS __ The earliest
Egyptian script, introduced about 3000 B.C. and used until about A.D. 4. It was
used for important inscriptions, although it was also often painted or written
on papyrus rather that carved.
HIGH ALTITUDE MOUNTAIN SICKNESS __ A condition
that includes shortness of breath, physical and mental fatigue, rapid pulse
rate, headaches; occurs in persons not acclimatized to high altitudes.
HIGH PRIEST __ The head of the local priesthood.
HIGHER TAXA __
Taxa above the species level, such as family, order, class, phylum, and kingdom
HINDUISM __ The third largest religion in the world (behind
Christianity and Islam). Hinduism is native to and predominantly
practiced in India. Followers of the Hindu religion are known as Hindus.
Hinduism is a diverse body of religion, philosophy, and cultural
practice. Unlike Christianity or Islam, Hinduism has no founder. Hindus
believe in a supreme soul called Brahman, who has no real shape or form.
Different aspects or characteristics of Brahman are represented by the
gods and goddesses of Hinduism. Hinduism's three main gods are Brahma,
the creator; Vishnu, the protector; and Shiva, the destroyer.
FEATURE __ A kind of cleavage produced by a flake which does not run its full
length. The point of termination is abrupt, and the flake is rounded on its
ventral face and sharp on its dorsal face at the distal end.
ARCHAEOLOGY __ The archaeology of a people for whom there are written records.
In North America therefore historic archaeology is the archaeology of people
after European contact.
HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS __ The study of how languages
change over time.
HISTORICAL PARTICULARISM __ A detailed descriptive approach
to anthropology associated with Franz Boas and his students, and designed as an
alternative to the broad generalizing approach favored by anthropologists such
as Morgan and Tylor.
HISTORICAL RECORD __ Artifacts, particularly documents and
photographs, retained within an adaptive system.
APPROACH __ A form of explanation based primarily on traditional descriptive
HOARDS __ Deliberately buried groups of valuables or
prized possessions, often in times of conflict or war, and which, for one reason
or another, have not been reclaimed. Metal hoards are a primary source of
evidence for the European Bronze Age.
HOLISM __ The philosophical view that
no complex entity can be considered to be only the sum of its parts; as a
principle of anthropology, the assumption that any given aspect of human life is
to be studied with an eye to its relation to other aspects of human life.
HOLOCENE __ The most recent epoch of the Quaternary; that period of
time since the end of the Pleistocene or "Ice Age" (l0,000 or l2,000
years ago) until the present. According to some, the Holocene is not a
separate epoch at all -- it is simply a brief warm spell within the
Pleistocene. The Holocene is also known as the Recent Epoch.
__ A location to which males and females return in human societies.
Greek poet who composed the Iliad and the Odyssey.
HOME RANGE __ The area
occupied by an animal or animal group.
HOMEOSTASIS __ A term used in systems
thinking to describe the action of negative feedback processes in maintaining
the system at a constant equilibrium state.
HOMINID __ Human. Part of the family of Hominidae, which includes
both extinct and modern forms of humans.
HOMINIDAE __ Family of the
superfamily Hominoidea that includes humans.
HOMINOID __ A member of the
superfamily Hominoidea, which includes apes and humans.
Superfamily of the suborder Anthropoidea that includes the apes and humans.
HOMO ERECTUS __ Meaning "upright man." This Early Stone Age hunter
colonized new habitats throughout Africa, Europe, and southern Asia.
Bigger and brainier than Homo Habilis or Australopithicus, Homo Erectus
had the thickest skull of any member of the human species. Its strong
muscles joining its neck to the rear skull bump stopped its heavy head
from sagging forward. Average height was between 5 and 6 ft., and
weight, 88 to 160 lbs.
HOMO HABILIS __ Meaning "handy man." This was
the first known species of our genus, Homo. Homo Habilis had a larger brain, but
a smaller face and jaw and a more rounded head, than Australopithicus. Homo
Habilis was about 5 feet tall, weighed about 110 pounds, and had a brow ridge,
flat nose, and projecting jaw. This species lived about 1.52 million years ago,
perhaps longer. Its hand and foot bones suggest that it was bipedal (walked
upright) and had a strong yet sensitive grip.
HOMO SAPIENS __ The biological
class to which all living human beings belong as well as their immediate
ancestors including the "Cro-Magnons". Some include the Neanderthals within this
HOMOLOGY __ A similarity due to inheritance from a common
HOPEWELL __ A Middle Woodland Period culture (or cult) which occupied
(or "influenced") much of eastern North America. Closely related to
Adena, this Ohio/Illinois-centered "complex" consisted of log tombs
within burial mounds, grit-tempered utilitarian pottery, effigy vessels
for inclusion with the dead, elaborate ceramic figurines, stone platform
pipes which often incorporated human and animal likenesses, sheet copper
ornaments, earspools, finely made ceremonial knives of obsidian and
effigy mounds -- the latter in the shape of panthers, bears, birds,
turtles, and other animals. Hopewell artifacts which are believed to
have been ceremonial in function are very similar over vast areas while
utilitarian objects vary regionally. This has led some to believe that
Hopewell is simply a religion, cult or belief system shared by a number
of groups with different languages and subsistence modes. The sheer
ambitiousness in some of the Hopewell earthworks and the fineness of
their artworks have suggested to some the ranked society, division of
labor, and occupational specialization usually associated with farming
societies. Direct evidence, however, is not overly convincing. It seems
more probable that Hopewell people made their living by hunting, fishing
and gathering a wide variety of resources within a rich environment.
HOPLITE __ A citizen of a Greek city state rich enough to afford body
armor and required to serve in a time of crisis.
HORIZON (1) __ A
discrete regional cultural period or level of cultural development marked by
some easily recognizable criterion or trait.
HORIZON (2) __ In soil-science
terminology, a natural developmental zone in a soil profile such as the
HORIZONTAL ANGLE __ In mapping, the angle of sight measured on
the level or horizontal plane.
HORIZONTAL CIRCLE __ With major surveying
instruments, the graduated horizontal table around which the sighting telescope
revolves; used to measure the horizontal angle.
HORIZONTAL DATUM __ A base
measuring point ("0.0 point") used as the origin of rectangular coordinate
systems for mapping or for maintaining excavation provenience.
DISTANCE __ The measurement of distance on a true level plane.
MIGRATION __ A nomadic pattern characterized by regular movement over a large
area in search of grass; also called plains migration.
__ The location of an object on a two-dimensional plane surface.
HORTICULTURE __ The science and art of growing fruit, flowers,
ornamental plants, and vegetables in small gardens.
HORUS __ Egyptian
god associated with the living pharaoh and often portrayed with the head of a
falcon, son of Osiris and Isis, opponent of the god Seth.
HORUS NAME __ A
Pharaoh's name. It identifies the pharaoh with a form of the god Horus.
PIT __ An aboriginally excavated house floor.
HOUSEHOLD __ A domestic
residential group whose members live together in intimate contact, rear
children, share the proceeds of labor and other resources held in common, and in
general cooperate on a day-to-day basis.
HU (Chinese) __ Wine vessel
HUNTER GATHERERS __ People or societies
that are dependent on wild food resources. Hunter-gatherers are usually from
technologically simple societies that are highly mobile. Also sometimes called
HYDRATION __ Formation of a bond between water and some material.
HYDRIA __ A pot used to bring water to the table. It had two horizontal handles
for carrying and a vertical handle for pouring.
HYDROPHYTE __ A damp-loving
plant which grows only under water or in very moist soil.
HYKSOS __ People from western Asia (Palestine) who conquered the Nile Delta and
ruled Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period. Their expulsion by the
Pharaoh Amose may have given rise to the Exodus story. The name Amose in Hebrew
HYPOSTYLE HALL __ From the Greek word meaning; "bearing pillars". It
is a term used to describe the grand, outermost halls of Egyptian temples. They
are believed to represent a grove of trees.
HYPOTHESIS __ A proposition or
explanation which is advanced, without assumption of its truth, as a basis for
further investigation, validation or rejection.
EXPLANATION __ A form of explanation based on the formulation of hypotheses and
the establishment from them by deduction of consequences which can then be
tested against the archaeological data.
HYPOXIA __ Low oxygen pressure due to
being at high altitude.