Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest

Reviewed Resources for Students and Teachers


By Regions

Eastern Woodland Indian Tribes - Northern Plains Indian Tribes - Pacific Northwest Indian Tribes  - Southern Plains & Southwest Indian Tribes


To individual tribes and associations



Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest

Cayuse Indian Tribe  - - Chehalis Indian Tribe - - Chinook Indians - - Coeur D'Alene Indians (Schitsu'umsh) - - Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians - - Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians - - Haida Indian Tribe - - Klamath Tribes (Klamath / Modoc / Yahooskin) - - Lummi Indians - - Lushootseed Indians - - Makah Indians - - Muckleshoot Indians - - Nez Perce Indians - - Nisqally Indians - - Palouse Indians - - Quileute Indians - - Quinault Nation - - Shoalwater Bay Tribe - - Skokomish Indians - - Spokane Indians - - Squaxin Island Tribe - - Tulalip Indians - - Umatilla / Wallawalla  Indians - - Yakima / Yakama Indians


Cayuse Indian Tribe

Cayuse___ Grade 5 students researched and prepared this most excellent report on the Cayuse Indians. The focus is on events surrounding a massacre and the authors have included first hand comments from settlers and trappers. -Illustrated - From Edison Elementary School - 
Cayuse __ "The Cayuse are a Native American tribe in the state of Oregon in the United States. The Cayuse tribe shares a reservation in northeastern Oregon with the Umatilla and the Walla Walla tribes as part of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation." An encyclopedic article with links to additional resources. - From wikipedia - 

Cayuse __ "The Cayuse Indian Tribe was a group called a family. The Cayuse had many friends but also had twice as many enemies." Brief overview. - From -

Cayuse History___ Very brief piece of information about this tribe and especially about its connection to horses. - Text only - From the Department of Linguistics, University of Oregon - 

Cayuse Indian Tribe History __ "Cayuse, A Waiilatpuan tribe formerly occupying the territory about the heads of Walla Walla, Umatilla, and Grande Ronde Rivers and from the Blue mountains to Deschutes River in Washington and Oregon. The tribe has always been closely associated with the neighboring Nez Percé and Walla Walla, and was regarded by the early explorers and writers as belonging to the same stock." A good look at Cayuse tribal history. - From - 

Cayuse Language and the Cayuse Indian Tribe (Waiilatpu, Waylatpam ... __ Cayuse language information and the culture, history and genealogy of the Cayuse Indians. - From - 

National Geographic: Lewis & Clark—Tribes—Cayuse Indians __ A brief overview of the Cayuse Indian Tribe and a couple of photos. - illustrated - From National Geographic Society -

CRITFC | Treaty with the Walla Walla, Cayuse, and Umatilla __ Full test of treaty. - From - 

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 Chehalis Indian Tribe

Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Oakville, Washington (Native ... __ "In addition to the Lower and Upper Chehalis, the confederation today includes the Hooshkal, Hoquiam, Humptulips, Klimmin, Nooskhom, Satsop, Wishkah and Wynooche bands. There are more than 650 confederation members." An overview including some history and current tribal information. - From Online Highways -

Chehalis Language and the Chehalis Indian Tribe __ Information about the Chehalis Language and several resources for additional information. - From -

Chehalis Tribal Council, Chehalis Indian Tribe, Head Start in Oakville, Washington __ "Chehalis Tribal Council, Chehalis Indian Tribe, Head Start in Oakville, Tribal Administrative Agencies, Washington with telephone, cell phone, fax and adress for Chehalis Tribal Council, Chehalis Indian Tribe, Head Start in Oakville. City map and press releases included" - From - 

Hazel Pete __ Learn how this lady revived the arts of the Chehalis. - illustrated - From - 

National Geographic: Lewis & Clark—Tribes—Chehalis Indians __ You will find a brief overview and a historic photo of a Chehalis woman. - illustrated - From National Geographic Society -

Portland Area Office - Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis ___Very brief article, listing the member tribes of this confederation, their location and tribal health programs. - Text only - From the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Indian Health Service -

Resources on the Chehalis __ You will find numerous online resources for Chelalis people. - From -

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Chinook Indians

Chinookan __ "Chinookan refers to several groups of Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. In the early 19th century, the Chinookan peoples lived along the lower and middle Columbia River in present-day Oregon and Washington. The Chinookan tribes were those encountered by the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805 on the lower Columbia." An encyclopedic article about the Chinooks along with links to related materials. - From wikipedia - 

Chinook __ A brief overview of Chinook history, culture and daily life. - From Minnesota State University - 

Chinook Indian - Enigmatic Tribe of the Columbia River __ "The Chinook Indians - tribe of Chinookan linguistic stock, lived in villages on the embankments of the Columbia River, from British Columbia, Canada to Eastern Washington State, all the way to the Pacific Ocean." - From American Indian -

Chinook Indian History __ "The best-known tribe of the Chinookan family. They claimed the territory on the north side of Columbia River, Wash., from the mouth to Grays bay, a distance of about 15 miles, and north along the seacoast as far as the north part of Shoalwater bay, where they were met by the Chehalis, a Salish tribe." A good look at Chinook history. - From - 

The Chinook Indian Nation __ "The Chinook Nation included a vast number of tribes about 16,000 in the early 1800s, settled along the banks of the Columbia River, starting from British Columbia, Canada, through Eastern Washington State all the way to the Pacific Ocean." An 'essay' style overview of the Chinook Indian Nation. - From -

Chinook Language and the Chinook Indian Tribe __ "Chinook language information and the culture, history and genealogy of the Chinook Indians." Basic language information and list of resources for the rest. - From - 

Chinook Mythology __ Stories in click-to-read format covering subjects such as the Creation of the Chinook and the Creation of Bats. - From - 

The Chinook Trade Jargon ___"Presented on this site are four Chinook Jargon dictionaries from the past which are not available elsewhere on-line in convenient form, for the benefit of students or reference by distant scholars. Links to other Jargon-related resources are provided here." - Text only - From Jeff Kopp -

Chinook Tribes __ "A small family of Indians inhabiting the lower Columbia River in Washington and Oregon as far up that river as The Dalles. The Chinooks were primarily a bay and river people, dependent on fishing (salmon) as well as game. They lacked the developed woodcarving art of the west coast tribes of British Columbia and northern Washington, although often classified in the same cultural area. They have been classified as the Upper and Lower Chinook, referring to their location on the Columbia River." This article covers several of the Chinookian peoples. - From University of Oregon -

Lewis and Clark . Native Americans . Chinook Indians | PBS __ "The Chinook Indians, relatives to the Clatsop tribe, lived in the Northwest along the banks of the Columbia River and the coast of the Pacific Ocean. The Chinooks were superb canoe builders and navigators, masterful traders, skillful fishermen and planters. They lived in large wooden plank houses and slept on reed mats over raised boards." - From PBS - 

The Official Website of the Chinook Nation __ Here you will find current events, news, history, culture and more. "Today, the last descendants of Chinook origin live on reservations in Washington and Oregon. There are currently over two thousand registered members of the Chinook Nation and hundreds more applying for membership. Their legacy is that of a placid, thriving society; never to fully reveal its complex culture and mythology, save for a few scattered texts, artifacts and images." - illustrated - From the Chinook Nation - 

Resources on the Chinook __ You will find a listing of online resources for Chinook people. - From -

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Coeur D'Alene Indians (Schitsu'umsh)

About The Coeur D'Alene Indians __ " For thousands of years the Coeur d'Alene Indians have lived in the Northern Idaho and Eastern Washington along the Spokane River Basin. Unlike the tribes of the plains, the Coeur d' Alenes and their neighbors, the Spokanes, the Kootenai, the Kalispell, the bands of the Colville Confederated Tribes and the Kootenai-Salish, or Flatheads, were not nomadic." A basic overview of Coeur d'Alene Indians. - From -

Coeur d'Alene Indian History __ "The Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation, located south of the resort town of Coeur d'Alene in Idaho's panhandle, occupies a fraction of the tribe's original territories. An arrowhead-shaped piece of land, the reservation includes the edge of the western Rockies, half of Lake Coeur d'Alene, and portions of the fertile Palouse country." An overview of Coeur d'Alene history. - From -

Coeur dAlene Language and the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe __ "Coeur dAlene language information and the culture, history and genealogy of the Coeur d'Alene Indians." You will find language information here and link resources for the rest. - From -

COEUR d’ ALENE Tribe __ From history to tribal government, you will find several articles here. - From - 

The Coeur d'Alene Tribe ___Not a large article, but it contains but it has some good information. - One photo - From Idaho PTV -

Couer d'Alene Profile ___Two paragraphs overview this tribe -- they're suitable for younger students. The "Executive Order creating the Couer d'Alene and Fort Hall Reservations" page with its legal text is for advanced research. - Text only - From the Center for Columbia River history -
IDAHO NATIVES | COEUR D'ALENE TRIBE __ "The Coeur d’Alene Tribe is turning heads in Idaho as well as nationally. Not only because of their large casino and hotel, but also for their social programs, involvement in conservation and their Supreme Court victory granting them the southern portion of Lake Coeur d’ Alene." Learn about a people with vision. A few Cour d'Alene photos are included. - illustrated - From -

Portland Area Office - Coeur d'Alene Tribe __ A brief overview of the tribe and office contact information. - From - 

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Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians

Alsea ___"YAKONAN or ALSEAN A group of Indians on the Oregon coast forming a small linguistic family..." Brief history and description of this linguistic family which is now a part of the Confederated Siletz Indians of Oregon. - A location map - From the Department of Linguistics, University of Oregon - 

Confederated Tribes of Siletz __ "The Confederated Tribes of Siletz in the United States is a federally recognized confederation of 27 Native American tribal bands that once inhabited a range from northern California to southwest Washington." an encyclopedic article with links to related materials. - From wikipedia - 

Confederated Tribes of Siletz __ Official tribal web site. Learn about services, Siletz history, Tribal Council and government plus a lot more. - illustrated - From - 
Confederated Tribes Of Siletz __ "They came from all over Western Oregon, these proud people who today make up the Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon Siletz. The Tillamook, Alsea, Siuslaw, Coos, Coquille, Takelma Six, Joshua, Tutuini, Mackanotni, Shastacosta and the Cheteo tribes and bands whose roots go back thousands of years and whose ancestors represent the blending of many different cultures." Here is history, tradition and culture. - From -

The Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians of Oregon: Tribal Government Operations __ "It is the strong public policy and tradition of the confederated Siletz Tribes to resolve disputes in an informal and consensual manner, using tribal elders ..." Learn about dispute resolution and tribal law. - From - 

Constitution of the Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians of Oregon __ " We, the members of the Confederated Tribes of Siletz Indians of Oregon, being a federal Indian tribe and organized pursuant to the Act of November 18, 1977, 91 Stat. 1415, and the Act of June 18, 1934, 48 Stat. 984, hereby adopt this Constitution and establish our tribal government in order to:" You will find the full text. - From - 

Portland Office - Confederated Tribes of Siletz ___Very brief article, listing the member tribes of this confederation, their location and tribal health programs. - Text only - From the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Indian Health Service -

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Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians

Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians ___Page after page full of excellent information about the Cow Creek Band. You'll find history under the 'Story' button. - Mostly text - From the Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe - 

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Haida Indian Tribe

Haida Culture and Ocean ___Enlargeable photos accompany interesting information about the Haida people. - Illustrated - From the Virtual Museum of Canada - 

Haida Language Mainpage ___"This website is dedicated to the study, preservation and revitalization of the Haida language." - Text only - From Sealaska Heritage Institute - 

Haida Legends ___"Welcome to the Haida Legends Page. All of these legends were written and illustrated by Grade 4 students at Selkirk Elementary. Students created these web pages with Netscape Composer." - Illustrated - From the Yukon Education Student Network -

Haida, Spirits of the Sea ___Navigating this excellent website will be easier if you use the site map. - Illustrated - From the Virtual Museum of Canada - 

Haida Songs Index ___"The Haida are a Canadian Native American group which lives on the Queen Charlotte Islands, just off the coast of British Columbia. This is the triangular archipelago which looks like it is a piece broken off of Alaska. This collection of Haida songs, collected early in the 20th century, gives many insights into Haida culture, including class divisions, belief in reincarnation, and the status of women. This etext is presented with the full Haida interlinear text." - Text only - From John R. Swanton, 1912 - 

The Haida Tribe ___"Learn about the Haida tribe, hardy inhabitants of the 150 islands that lie off Canada's British Columbia coast." - Text only - From PageWise, Inc. - 

Seattle’s Coffee Giant Sued a 60-seat Café___"... in doing so, it locked horns with the entire Haida nation." Read this informative, but highly entertaining, article here. - Illustrated - From The Globe and Mail -

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Klamath Tribes (Klamath / Modoc / Yahooskin)

Information You Need To Know About - The Klamath Tribes __ Please read the rest of this page before visiting there. They have so many resources listed you won't need me any more. - - not that you ever did - sigh. - From - 

Judge affirms Klamath Tribes' water right of time immemorial __ "...A federal judge has reaffirmed that the water rights of the Klamath Tribes stretch back to time immemorial, and backed their right to claim water to support food gathering." News article dated 2002. But since it 'is' for time immemorial, the article should stay up for a while. - From - 

Klamath Indian Tribe ___"Learn about the history, culture, way of life and current situation of the Klamath Indian tribe." - Text only - From PageWise, Inc. -

Klamath-Modoc Language and the Klamath and Modoc Indian Tribes ... __ "Modoc-Klamath language information and the culture, history and genealogy of the Klamath and Modoc Indians." You will find language information on the page and resources for the rest. - From -  

Klamath Tribe __ "The Klamath Indians have hunted, fished, and foraged in the area of the Klamath Marsh and upper Williamson River for over a thousand years. In 1864 the Klamath Tribe entered into a treaty with the United States whereby it relinquished its aboriginal claim to some 12 million acres of land in return for a reservation of approximately 800,000 acres in south-central Oregon." The large amount of information found here deals with the results of that treaty. - From Marcia H. Armstrong - 

Klamath Tribes __ "The Klamath Tribes, formerly the Klamath Indian Tribe of Oregon, are a federally recognized confederation of three Native American tribes who traditionally inhabited Southern Oregon and Northern California in the United States: the Klamath, Modoc, and Yahooskin." An encyclopedic article. - From wikipedia -

The Long Struggle Home: The Klamath Tribes' Fight to Restore Their Land, People and Economic Self-sufficiency __ "On March 19, 2002 the Secretary of the Interior invited the Klamath Tribes to meet with Interior officials to work on long term solutions to an entire range of water, land and wildlife issues facing the people of the Klamath Basin in Oregon and California . This historic invitation included discussions of the potential return of public lands taken from the Tribes in the 1960's when the federal government took the Tribes ancestral reservation lands. The Tribes' lands were taken as part of the now repudiated "Termination Era" when the policy of the United States Congress was to end the government-to-government relationship with Indian tribes and force the assimilation of Indian people into the mainstream of the majority culture." A very interesting article. - From Klamath Tribes - 
Portland Area Office - The Klamath Tribes __ "The mission of the Klamath Tribes is to protect, preserve, and enhance the spiritual, cultural, and physical values and resources of the Klamath, Modoc, and Yahooskin Peoples, by maintaining the customs and heritage of our ancestors." Learn about the services of the Portland office, medical, etc. - From - 

Society - Klamath ___This is a cultural summary of these people with an overview of location and political and social structure. - Text only - From EthnoAtlas -

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Lummi Indians

Lummi __ "The Lummi Nation is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. The tribe lives on the Lummi Indian Reservation in the inland northwest corner of Washington, 8 miles west of Bellingham and 20 miles south of the Canadian border, in western Whatcom County." An encyclopedic article. - From wikipedia - 

The Lummi Indian Nation __ "The original Lummi spoke the Songish dialect of the Salish language, a cultural feature that persists to the present. Their ancient villages bore the evocative names Hutatchl, Lemaltcha, Statshum and Tomwhiksen. For 12,000 years, the Lummi subsisted near the sea and in mountain areas." A general overview including history and culture. - From -

Lummi Indian Tribe liberty and freedom totem pole ceremony __ Learn about the placement to a Lummi Totem Pole in Washington D.C. - From US Department of Defense Speeches/ - 

Lummi Indians and Trade ___The information presented here is good, but the presentation is abysmal! Topics include environmental limitations, treaty enforcement, labor discrimination, access to credit, technology, education and government transfers. One ugly website! -Text only - From American University, Washington, DC. -

Lummi Leader's Had It With Drugs ___The title of this news article says it all -- for older students. "Sick of substance abuse ravaging the tribe, new chairman ready to 'clean it up.'" - Text only - From the Seattle Post-Intelligencer -

Lummi Nation homepage __ Official web site of the Lummi Nation. "We are Lummi. We are Coast Salish people with a rich history, culture and traditions. We are fishers, hunters, gatherers, and harvesters of nature's abundance. We envision our homeland as a place where we enjoy an abundant, safe, and healthy life in mind, body, society, environment, space, time and spirituality; where all are encouraged to succeed and none are left behind." Programs, finance, government and more for this Washington tribe. - illustrated - From - 

Canku Ota - September 8, 2001 - Lummi School Sees Big Changes __ News article about the problems, improvements and challenges being dealt with by the Lummi Tribal School. - Good map - From The "Canku Ota - A Newsletter Celebrating Native America" - 

Potlatch Economics: A Lummi Perspective ___"While it appears complicated at first glance, a careful reading of this paper will clear up any confusion. It begins with a general definition of economics, moves along to a general overview of the disparities between the economy of aboriginal and first settlers in general and ends with a look at the situation of the Lummi Nation in particular." - Some illustration - From Center for World Indigenous Studies

Resources on the Lummi __ Lost on online resources about the Lummi, some interspersed with resources about other Native American topics. - From - 

SCN The Lummi Indian Tribe and Life with the Salmon Case Study ___The Lummi have fished their territories for thousands of years. How are they doing in the present? Find out here. - Text only - From the Sustainable Communities Network Partnership - 

USGS - Lummi Indian Reservation __ Article about water use on the Lummi reservation. - From USGS -

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Lushootseed Indians

Ethnologue Report For language Code: LUT ___A brief report about this nearly extinct language. What a shame! - Text only - From Ethnologue, Web Version -

Lushootseed Legends (Folklore, Myths, and Traditional Indian Stories) __ "...collection of links to Lushootseed folktales and traditional stories that can be read online." - From - __ A website dedicated to the use and preservation of the Lushootseed language. Interesting Lushootseed photos too. - illustrated - From -

Lushootseed Phrasing ___This paper examines the phonological phrasing of the Lushootseed language. It's in .pdf format which requires Adobe Acrobat Reader software. Very scholarly and technical. - Text only - From University of Toronto - 

Resources on the Lushootseed __ List of online resources. - From - 

Vi Hilbert ___This brief article introduces you to an elder who is instrumental in preserving the Lushootseed language and culture. It's accompanied by bilingual audio files in MP3 and WAV formats. "PC users must have Microsoft Windows Media Player or Real Player to listen to these audio clips. Mac users will need QuickTime." - 1 photo - From the Seattle Times -

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Makah Indians

The History of the Makah Whale Hunt ___Learn about the Makah peoples' traditional connection to the whale. There's a description of how a hunt was conducted, why it was suspended, and why it has been revived. - Text only - From Progressive Animal Welfare Society (PAWS) - 

Makah ___A brief encyclopedic article. - Text only - From The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 

Makah Treaty of Neah Bay - 1855 ___Full text of the treaty with a list of the delegates who signed it. - Text only - From ExploreNorth -  

The Makah Whale Hunt ___"The Makah are the only Native Americans who have a treaty that specifically allows whale hunting - it was signed in 1855." As well as getting information about the traditional hunt, you'll see how the situation changed in the 1990s. There are also links to websites by both opponents and supporters of a modern-day hunt. - Text only - From ExploreNorth -

Makah Nation -- On the Olympic Peninsula ___Learn about the region the Makah Nation calls home. There are photos of the Cape Flattery Trail and a good map. - Illustrated - From Olympic Peninsula - 

Welcome to the Makah Nation ___A user-friendly website with tons of interesting information about all aspects of the Makah people. Topics range form culture to history to language. - Some images scattered throughout - From the Makah Indian Nation - 

When the Animals and Birds Were Created ___This is a Makah legend which explains how their world was created for them. - Text only - From Indigenous Peoples' Literature -

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Muckleshoot Indians

HistoryLink Essay: Muckleshoot Indian Tribe __ "The Muckleshoot Indian tribe is an amalgam of several Native American tribes that have inhabited the region surrounding the White and Green rivers for centuries. Located on a six square mile reservation between Auburn and Enumclaw, the tribe numbers in the thousands, and employs most of its members through fisheries, gaming, small business, and tribal government." An excellent overview of the Muckleshoot including a few Muckleshoot photos. - illustrated - From - 

Muckleshoot __ "The Muckleshoot are a Native American tribe descended from the Coast Salish people of the Pacific Northwest. Traditionally, the Muckleshoots lived along the eastern shores of Washington State's Puget Sound region and the adjacent rivers of the Cascade Range." An encyclopedic article. - From wikipedia - 

Muckleshoot Indian Tribe ___An interesting history of this relatively new tribe. - Illustrated - From -

Muckleshoot Indian Tribe Home Page ___Although the whole website provides good information, students will appreciate the detailed history pages in that section. You'll find an overview, a detailed history which includes such topics as clothing, tools, and food processing, and some information about their language. - Text only - From the Muckleshoot Indian Tribe - 

Portland Area Office - Muckleshoot Indian Tribe __ "Today's Muckleshoot Indian Tribe (MIT) is one of Washington State's larger Tribes, with an on- or near-Reservation population of about 3,300." A brief general background and medical access information. - From -

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Nez Perce Indians

Chief Joseph __ "Suppose a white man should come to me and say, “Joseph, I like your horses. I want to buy them.”... I say to him, “No, my horses suit me; I will not sell them.”...Then he goes to my neighbor and says, “Pay me money, and I will sell you Joseph’s horses.”...The white man returns to me and says, “Joseph, I have bought your horses and you must let me have them.”...If we sold our lands to the government, this is the way they bought them." More about this great man here. - From - 

Chief Joseph, Nez Perce __ "Chief Joseph, known by his people as In-mut-too-yah-lat-lat (Thunder coming up over the land from the water), was best known for his resistance to the U.S. Government's attempts to force his tribe onto reservations. The Nez Perce were a peaceful nation spread from Idaho to Northern Washington. The tribe had maintained good relations with the whites after the Lewis and Clark expedition." - By Glenn Welker - 

Chief Joseph Surrenders ___Use the 'Next' arrow at the bottom of each page to view all three pages which recount the story of Chief Joseph's flight and surrender. - Illustrated - From America's Library -  
Idaho Natives / Nez Perce Tribe __ A look at contemporary Nez Perce life and economics. You will find several articles related to this as well as to history. - illustrated - From University of Idaho -

Lewis and Clark . Native Americans . Nez Perce Indians | PBS __ An excellent overview of the Nez Perce. "The Nez Perce Indians lived in scattered villages in the Plains west of the Rocky Mountains. About 4,000 in number, they were excellent horsemen and owned the largest horse herd on the continent. They fished for salmon along the Clearwater and Snake rivers, and harvested camas plants in mountain meadows." - illustrated - From PBS -

National Geographic: Lewis & Clark Tribes Nez Perce Indians __ "As typical plateau Indians, the Nez Perce fished the Clearwater and Snake Rivers and harvested camas roots. When Clark and other members of the expedition emerged exhausted and starved from their journey through the Bitterroot Mountains, the Nez Perce greeted them with dried buffalo, camas root bread, and fish. Unfortunately this rich diet had an adverse effect on the digestive systems of the explorers." This tid-bit and more. - illustrated - From National Geographic - 

Nez Perce __ "The Nez Perce Indians were once the largest congregation of tribes in the western United States. They spanned across the open lands of the northwest and even went as far as the Great Plains during the hunting season." A brief summary of Nez Perce history and culture. - From University of Minnesota -

Nez Perce Indians __ "To understand the Nez Perce people you must first understand their landscape. Legends of their cultural ties to land run as deep as the canyons of the nearby Clearwater River. It’s a land defined by weather, etched by rivers and freed from time. The land holds the answers; provides the sustenance. Even the traditional Nez Perce calendar is interwoven with the surrounding landscape." A great introduction to the Nez Perce - illustrated - From Valley Vision - 

Nez Perce Indians, Call Themselves Ni Mii Puu Meaning The People __ Brief overview of Nez Perce including some historic photos. - illustrated - From Clearwater Historical Museum - 

Nez Perce Indians Spent Eight Months at Fort Leavenworth __ Read this chapter in the history of the Nez Perce. "For eight months spanning the winter of 1877 and summer of 1878, Fort Leavenworth was an interim prisoner of war camp. In the bottoms near the Missouri River, on the site of a former race track, the army confined about 400 of the Southern Nez Perces and their leader, a chief among chiefs in American Indian history: Chief Joseph." - From J. H. Johnston III/Leavenworth County Historical Society and Museum -

Nez Perce Tribe __ The official website of the Nez Perce Tribe. You will find history and culture, current events, law (the tribal code) and much more. - illustrated - From Nez Perce Tribe - 

Nez Perce - Yellowstone Area Raid 1877 __ "Chief Joseph, leader of the “non-treaty” Nez Perce Indian Tribe, earned the respect of General Nelson A. Miles (Bear Coat), who finally halted their march north to Canada after losing their land. The tribe sneaked down Clarks Fork in Yellowstone Valley thus evading the 7th Cavalry. His capture shifted the public’s interest from Custer’s defeat." Learn how and why this event took place. - From - 

The Pursuit of Chief Joseph ___"Read this first-person account (from a contemporary U.S. military viewpoint) of Chief Joseph's famous flight for freedom with his Nez Perce people. There's an interesting bit about disagreements between the generals involved." - Text only - From PBS -

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Nisqally Indians

Nisqually Indian Tribe __ "Pete is a Nisqually Elder, and has started this page to provide tribal information until the tribe has it's own site in place. This page is a work in progress..." - From Unknown (Pete) - 

Nisqually Indian Tribe __ "The Nisqually Tribe is an American Indian nation in western Washington State. The tribe resides on a reservation in the Nisqually River valley near the river delta. The reservation is adjacent to the Fort Lewis Military Reserve and situated on the lower Nisqually River east of Olympia." History, culture, more. - From -

Nisqually Indian Tribe - Official Site __ "We envision the Nisqually Indian Tribe as a place of harmony for all people, interconnected with all things, where spirits are strong and good. Families and relations are united and healthy. Our elders carry the wisdom and traditional ways of the past, and pass it on to our youth. Our people honor, support, and encourage each other to grow and find our own way. We walk proudly into the future." You will find history, culture and much more. - illustrated - From -

Nisqually Indians __ A general overview of the Nisqually in Washington state. Background color makes the text difficult to read but there is some good information there. - From Unknown - 

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Palouse Indians

National Geographic: Lewis & Clark—Tribes—Palouse Indians __ Get information about Native American (Indian) Tribes Lewis & Clark met on the expedition--accounts of the encounters, historical pictures, paintings. - From National Geographic Society -

Palouse Falls __ You will find information about the Palouse Indians near the bottom of the page. - illustrated - From -

Resources on the Palouse __ List of online Palouse resources. - From - 

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Quileute Indians

Lapush Washington ___Read some history and current information about the Quileute people. - Text only - From the Forks-Web - 

Quileute Language and the Quileute Indian Tribe __ Quileute language information and the culture, history and genealogy of the Quileute Indians. - From -

Quileute (tribe) __ "Quileute is a group, currently numbering approximately 750, of Native American peoples from western Washington state in the United States. The Quileute people settled onto the Quileute Indian Reservation after signing the Treaty of Point Elliott with the former Washington Territory in 1855." An encyclopedic article. - From wikipedia -

Quileute Thunderbird Myth __ Quileute legend of the Thunderbird - From -

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Quinault Nation

Jefferson County and the Quinault Indian Nation ___Two Memorandums of Understanding, both full text -- one from Jefferson County and one from the Quinault Indian Nation. - Text only - From Fourth World Documentation Project Archive - 

National Geographic: Lewis & Clark—Tribes—Quinault Indians __ "Get information about Native American (Indian) Tribes Lewis & Clark met on the expedition--accounts of the encounters, historical pictures, paintings." - illustrated - From National Geographic Society - 

Peaceful Warriors Passing Through ___The author of this essay calls Joseph B. DeLaCruz "perhaps the greatest American Indian leader of the twentieth century in the United States..." You need to scroll about halfway down the page to learn about this man. - Text only - From the Center For World Indigenous Studies - 

Portland Area Office - Quinault Indian Nation __ General information, some history, and important medical information. - From -

Quinault Indian Tribe __ "Quinault. "A corruption of kwi'nail, the name of the largest settlement situated at the present site of the village (Taholah)" at the mouth of the Quinault River." You will find general information, a list of Quinault towns and additional online resources. - From - 

The Quinault Indians __ Curtis' early 20th-century ethnography of the Quinault tribe. - From - 

Quinault Language and the Quinault Indian Tribe __ "Quinault language information and the culture, history and genealogy of the Quinault Indians." - From -

Quinault Legends __ A couple click-to-read Quinault legends and resources for others. - From -
Quinault Nation __ A look at the current status of the Quinault Nation. "Quinault Pride Seafood Products are from the Quinault Indian Nation at Taholah, Washington. Made up of the Quinault and Queets tribes, our people have taken great care to safeguard the natural resources on which our ancestors survived centuries ago." That quote is just one example of the Quinault's concern for natural resources and the environment. - From - 

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Shoalwater Bay Tribe

Portland Area Office - Shoalwater Bay Tribe __ "Overseeing the delivery of Health Care to Native American people in the Northwest " - From -

Resources on the Shoalwater Bay __ List of online resources. - From - 

Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe __ A tribal home page. Some of the onsite links seem to be not working but there is still information to be found. - illustrated - From - 

Shoalwater Bay Tribe __ An encyclopedic article with links to related material. - From wikipedia -

Shoalwater Bay Tribe - Governors Office of Indian Affairs __ A brief tribal overview. - From -  

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Skokomish Indians

Culture and History of the Skokomish Tribe  __ "What is now known as the Skokomish Tribe actually was primarily composed of Twana Indians, a Salishan people whose aboriginal territory encompassed the Hood Canal drainage basin in western Washington State." A good overview of Skokomish history and culture. - illustrated - From - 

Skokomish __ An encyclopedic entry with links to related materials. - illustrated - From - 

Skokomish Indians __ "Skokomish, also known as the Twana, are a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States." Encyclopedic article with links to related materials. - From wikipedia -

Skokomish Tribal Nation ___Official tribal website with information about history and current information including fisheries, natural resources and administration. - Illustrated - From the Skokomish Tribal Nation -   

The Skokomish Tribal Nation __ Skokomish Nation home page. ""To promote, for present and future generations, an independent, sovereign nation that preserves the traditional values, and treaty rights of the Twana people. The Skokomish Tribal Council will provide leadership to create a self-sufficient Skokomish Nation, owned and controlled by members who are grounded in their culture, addiction free, knowledgeable." - illustrated - From - 

Skokomish Tribal Nation - Corporate Charter Document __ Full text of Skokomish charter. - From -

Skokomish Tribe Historic Preservation Office  __ "Functioning under the authority of Section 101(d)(2) of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) and Resolution 00-63(78) of the Skokomish Tribal Council, the Skokomish Tribal Historic Preservation Office (STHPO)." Learn about their activities and goals in this brief overview. - illustrated - From - 

Twana language __ A very brief look at the Twana language. - From wikipedia - 

Twana Language and the Twana/Skokomish Indian Tribes __ "Twana was a Salishan language of Washington state. The last native speaker of Twana died in 1980, but other elders remember something of the language and some Skokomish people today are working to revive their language again." A few articles about the Twana language as well as other resources about the Skokomish. - From -

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Spokane Indians

Native Americans: Spokane History and Culture __ You will find resources for the Culture, history and genealogy of the Spokane Indians. - From -

Resources on the Spokane __ List of online resources. - From -

Spokan Indian Tribe History __ "Spokan A name applied to several small bodies of Salish on and near Spokane River, north east Washington."  An overview of history and some culture. - From -

Spokane Indian Tribe __ "The role of Spokane Indian Tribe in the history of the United States of America." - From -

Spokane Indian Reservation __ An overview of the Spokane Indian Reservation with history, culture and photos. - illustrated - From -

Spokane Indians __ "The Spokane (or Spokan) are a Native American people in the northeastern portion of the U.S. state of Washington." An encyclopedic article with links to related materials. - From wikipedia -

Spokane Tribe of Indians ___Official website of the Spokane people with history and current information. - A few images - From the Spokane Tribe of Indians -

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Squaxin Island Tribe

Encyclopedia: Squaxin Island Tribe ___Encyclopedic entry for this Washington State tribe along with links to additional materials. - Text only - From -

Portland Area Office - Squaxin Island Tribe __ "Overseeing the delivery of Health Care to Native American people in the Northwest " - From -

Squaxin Island MLRC __ "We invite you to come and learn about our exciting history and culture. The Squaxin Island Tribe's Museum Library and Research Center features exhibits and rare artifacts that tell the unique story of the people..." Learn about the Squaxin Island Tribe in this online exhibit. - illustrated - From -

Squaxin Island Indian Tribe __ "The role of Squaxin Island Indian Tribe in the history of the United States of America." - From -

Squaxin Island Tribe __ "Squaxin Island Tribe (also Squaxin, Squaxon) is a Native American tribe in western Washington state in the United States. The Squaxin Island tribe is made up of several subtribes: the Noo-Seh-Chatl, Steh Chass, Squi-Aitl, Sawamish/T'Peeksin, Sa-Heh-Wa-Mish, Squawksin, and S'Hotle-Ma-Mish." A very brief encyclopedic article along with many links to related materials. - From wikipedia -

Squaxin Island Tribe __  You will find general information about the Squaxin Tribe, news, events and more. - illustrated - From -

Squaxin Island Tribe - Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board ... __ "To promote and facilitate engineering planning and construction support for the IHS national facilities program by developing and enhancing relationships among Tribes, area offices, and Service Unit engineers and related professionals dealing in building health care systems." - illustrated - From -

Squaxin Island Tribe's First Salmon Ceremony __ "...the Squaxin Island Tribe held their annual First Salmon Ceremony. The public event marks the beginning of the salmon fishing season for the tribe and honors the salmon that are central to the tribe’s culture."  A news article with photo gallery. - illustrated - From -

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Tulalip Indians

Constitution and Bylaws for the Tulalip Tribes of Washington __ "We, the Indians of the Tulalip Tribes, in order to establish a more perfect tribal organization, promote the general welfare, encourage educational progress, conserve and develop our lands and resources, and secure to ourselves and our posterity the power to exercise certain rights of home rule not inconsistent with the Federal, State, and local laws, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the Tulalip Indians."  Full text. - From -

Resources on the Tulalip __ A list of online resources about the Tulalip. - From -

Treaty of Point Elliott ___Access the full text of this 1855 treaty which established the Tulalip Reservation. - Text only - From a personal website -

Tulalip __ You will find an encyclopedic article with links to related material. - illustrated - From wikipedia -

Tulalip Indian Tribes __ Learn the role of Tulalip Indian Tribes in the history of the United States of America. - From - 

The Tulalip Tribes ___Learn all about the implementation and successes of the mentoring program at Tulalip Option School. - Text only - From Canku Ota - 

Tulalip Tribes Home ___Good information about Tulalip businesses, services, departments and regulations. - Videos require Windows Media Player - From the Tulalip Tribes -

Tulalip Tribes Marysville Washington __ "The 22,000 acre reservation, more than half of which is held in federal trust*, is adjacent to the city of Everett. The tract includes land suitable for development, forests, creeks and lakes, wetlands, tidelands and marine waters."  An overview of history and culture. - From - 

The Tulalip Tribes Natural Resource Department __ Page features information on treaty rights, resource management, and also some cultural links. - From -  

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Umatilla / Wallawalla  Indians

Bones of Contention ___This PBS webpage provides a transcript of a program by the same name. The topic at hand is whether or not the Umatilla people or scientists have the right to decide the fate of the ancient skeleton we know as Kennewick man. - Text only - From PBS - 

Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation ___This official tribal website provides information about such topics as history and culture, government and news and issues. - Illustrated - From the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation -

Constitution and By-Laws of the Umatilla Indian Reservation in Oregon __ Full text of the laws. - From -

CRITFC | Treaty with the Walla Walla, Cayuse, and Umatilla __ Full test of treaty. - From -

National Geographic: Lewis & Clark—Tribes—Umatilla Indians __ "When Lewis and Clark's men first encountered the Umatilla, the terrified Indians hid in their homes or abandoned them at the strangers' approach."  An accounting of the meeting with the Umatilla. - From -   

National Geographic: Lewis & Clark—Tribes—Walla Walla Indians __ "When the expedition met the Walla Walla on October 18, 1805, they were eagerly greeted. The lead chief, Yelleppit, wanted the trade goods that Lewis and Clark could provide."  An accounting of the meeting with the Walla Walls. - illustrated - From -

Native Americans: Walla Walla History and Culture __ You will find information and the culture, history and genealogy of the Walla. - From -

Resources on the Umatilla __ Collection of online resources. - From -

Tamástslikt Cultural Institute ___You'll find a great deal of informative text on this site's pages, but there are no images to speak of (unless you count the commercial pages). Topics include exhibits, events and museum history. - Text only - From the Tamástslikt Cultural Institute - 

Umatilla ___This article discusses the Umatilla participation in salmon restoration projects in the Pacific Northwest. A list of tribal facts can be found to the right of your screen. - One image - From the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission -

The Umatilla Indian Tribe __ "The original bands subsisted by fishing, hunting, gathering other foods and concocting medicines. In addition, they took part in trade with other bands that extended from the Pacific coast to Great Plains."  Overview of history and culture. - From -

Umatilla (tribe) __ You will find an encyclopedic article with links to related material. - illustrated - From wikipedia -

Walla Walla Treaty Council 1855 __ "The fate of the Cayuse, Umatilla, and Walla Walla Indians who lived in this part of Oregon became closely tied to that of the Nez Perce, Palouse, and Yakama who also participated in the treaty council."  Article about the council. - From -

Walla Walla (tribe) __ You will find an encyclopedic article with links to related material. - illustrated - From wikipedia -  

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Yakima / Yakama Indians

Celebrating Our Culture: The Yakama Indian Nation __ "Centuries before Euro-American settlers migrated to the Yakima Valley, bands of indigenous people roamed throughout the Yakima Valley and Central Washington making it their home. Plentiful salmon and game supported these extended families. Their diets were also complimented by crops and natural foods that could be cultivated or found within the region."  A brief article with a historic and contemporary overview. - From - 

Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation __ "The ancestors of today's Yakamas were of different tribes and bands. Each was a distinct group led by a council of leaders, and each tribe or band spoke their own native language, and were closely related to other Columbia Basin Plateau Tribes. The following are the names of these tribes and bands that participated in or were named as part of the YAKAMA NATION."  A history of the Yakama. - From -

Facts for Kids: Yakama Indians (Yakima, Yakimas) __ "Information about the Yakama Indians for students and teachers. Covers food, homes, arts and crafts, weapons, culture, and daily life of the Yakamas." - From -

Native Americans: Yakama Indian History and Culture __ "Culture, history, art, religion, and genealogy of the Yakama Indians." - From -

Newest Yakama Warrior ___Although he's a few years older than he was at the time this article was published, it's still a good story about a young boy who is showing great talent as a traditional dancer at Native Powwows around the United States. - Illustrated - From Canku Ota -

Yakama: Definition __ Collection of online encyclopedia articles about the Yakama. - From -

Yakama Forest Products ___"The Yakama Indian Nation manages and harvests 309,000 commercial acres of saw log timber. The annual allowable cut is one hundred forty three million board feet per year." As you navigate though the pages of this website you'll learn about the importance of the timber industry to the economy of the Yakama Nation. The Yakama history link button seems to be non-operative. - Illustrated - From Yakama Forest Products -

Yakama Indian Nation __ A text only overview of the Yakama Nation. - From -

Yakama Indian Nation Toppenish Washington __ "The Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation are descendents of 14 tribes and bands that were federally recognized under the Yakama Treaty of 1855."  You will find history, culture and tribal business ventures among other information. - illustrated - From -

Yakama Language and the Yakama (Yakima) Indian Tribe (Sahaptin ... __ "Information on the Yakama Sahaptin language and the Yakama (formerly Yakima) Indians." - From -

Yakama Nation __ You will find an encyclopedic article with links to related material - illustrated - From wikipedia -   

Yakama Nation ___This article discusses the Yakama participation in salmon restoration projects in the Pacific Northwest. A list of tribal facts can be found to the right of your screen. - One image - From the Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission -

Yakama Nation Cultural Heritage Center __ Learn about the museum and upcoming events. - From -

Yakama Indian Nation fighting battle against cattle industry __ "...On the Yakama Indian Nation, people are vomiting from breathing fecal dust from cows and in some cases are unable to drink water from their wells, which are tainted by contaminants from dairy feed lots and contained animal feeding operations, or CAFOs." A news article. - From - 

Yakima Indian Tribe History __ "Yakima (Ya-ki-ná, `runaway'). An important Shahaptian tribe, formerly living on both sides of the Columbia and on the northerly branches of the Yakima (formerly Tapteal) and the Wenatchee, in Washington."  A short article about the History of the Yakima. - From -

Yakima or Yakama - The Flags of the Native Peoples of the United ... __ Image and article about the Yakima Indian flag. - illustrated - From -




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